Classification: non_cocco -> Parmales
Sister taxa: Haptophytes, Parmales, Silicoflagellates, scales and miscellaneous, Dinophytes, Diatoms, Zooplankton groups, Ascidian spicules, Crystals and crud, Palaeozoic nannofossils, hidden

Daughter taxa: (blue => in age window 0-800Ma) Granddaughter taxa
Formed of 3 round plates & 2 triradiate plates

Formed of 4 shield plates & 4 triradiate plates

Formed of 3 shield plates, 1 triradiate plate, 3 girdle plates, & 1 ventral plate


Citation: Parmales Booth et Marchant 1987 emend. Konno et Jordan 2007
Rank: Order
Taxonomic discussion: Ichinomiya et al. (2016) published molecular genetic data showing that Bolidomonas falls within the Parmales and that the order is a sister group to the diatoms.  They suggest that there are alternate life cycle phases - a non-motile cyst-like phase as represented by the silicified forms shown here and a motile non-mineralised form, formerly know as Bolidomonas.

Booth & Marchant (1987, 1988) described two families: 
  • Triparmacae (originally Octolaminaceae) - formed of eight plates; Triparma, Tetraparma 
  • Pentalaminacea - formed of five plates; Pentalamina 
In the intersts of simplicity we omit the family rank here.

Catalog entries: Parmales [no catalog entry yet]

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): within Ionian Stage (0.13-0.78Ma, base in Ionian stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database


Booth, B. C. & Marchant, H. J. (1987). Parmales, a new order of marine chrysophytes, with descriptions of three new genera and seven new species. Journal of Phycology. 23: 245-260. gs

Booth, B. C. & Marchant, H. J. (1988). Triparmaceae, a substitute name for a family in the order Parmales (Chrysophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 24(1): 124-. gs

Ichinomiya, M. et al. (2016). Diversity and oceanic distribution of the Parmales (Bolidophyceae), a picoplanktonic group closely related to diatoms. ISME Journal. 10(10): 2419-2434. gs

Konno, S. & Jordan, R. W. (2007). An amended terminology for the Parmales (Chrysophyceae). Phycologia. 46(6): 612-616. gs


Parmales compiled by Jeremy R. Young viewed: 29-10-2020

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Comments (1)

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Ric Jordan

The group does have a fossil record. At least Quaternary - see my publications for relevant references.

Jeremy Young (UK)

Fair point - I have just added the record of Stradner & Allram 1982, but are there any older records?

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