Biscutum constans


Classification: Mesozoic -> Podorhabdales -> Biscutaceae -> Biscutum -> Biscutum constans
Sister taxa: B. arrogans, B. asymmetricum, B. boletum, B. constans, B. coronum, B. davyi, B. dekaenelii, B. depravatus, B. dissimilis, B. dorsetensis, B. dubium, B. ellipticum, B. erismatum, B. gaultensis, B. grande, B. hattneri, B. intermedium, B. magnum, B. melaniae, B. notaculum, B. planum, B. profundum, B. thurowii, B. virginica, B. zulloii, B. sp.,

Distinguishing features: Minute to medium biscutaceans without any discernible (LM) structure inside their birefringent central tube cycle. These forms show considerable variation in size and in the relative width of the central tube. The smallest forms (c.1.5µm) are barely discernible in the LM.


Daughter taxa: (blue => in age window 0-800Ma)
A large, elliptical Biscutum with a large central opening

Taxonomy:

Citation: Biscutum constans (Górka, 1957) Black in Black and Barnes, 1959
Rank: Species
Basionym: Discolithus constans Górka, 1957
Synonyms: Biscutum ellipticum (Górka, 1957) Grün in Grün and Allemann, 1975 (basionym: Tremalithus ellipticus Górka, 1957)
List of Cretaceous synonyms, from Verbeek (1977)
Notes & discussion: In the Jurassic B. constans type specimens occur but they are typically somewhat smaller than in the Cretaceous and are often named B. dubium

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: Discolithus constans * , Biscutum testudinarium * , Biscutum castrorum * , Cribrosphaerella tectiforma * , Coccolithites polycingulatus * , Biscutum blacki * , Maslovella blackii * , Maslovella pulchra * , Biscutum multiforme * , Biscutum concavum * , Biscutum gartneri * , Biscutum martellum * , Biscutum sulcata *

Distinguishing features: Minute to medium biscutaceans without any discernible (LM) structure inside their birefringent central tube cycle. These forms show considerable variation in size and in the relative width of the central tube. The smallest forms (c.1.5µm) are barely discernible in the LM.

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): within Late Maastrichtian Substage (66.04-69.91Ma, top in Maastrichtian stage). Data source: Bown et al. 1998
First occurrence (base): within Bathonian Stage (166.07-168.28Ma, base in Bathonian stage). Data source: Bown et al. 1998

Plot of occurrence data:

  • Histogram - Neptune occurrence data from DSDP and ODP proceedings. Pale shading <50 samples in time bin. Interpret with caution & read these notes
  • Note to users in China - the diagram may not plot unless you use a VPN since I use google services on the website. If this is a problem please contact me 谢谢.
  • Taxon plotted: Biscutum constans, synonyms included - Biscutum castrorum; Biscutum constans; Biscutum testudinarium;
  • space-time plot :: Samples map :: Parent: Biscutum

    References:

    Applegate, J. L. & Bergen, J. A. (1988). Cretaceous calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of sediments recovered from the Galicia Margin, ODP Leg 103. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results. 103: 293-348. gs

    Black, M. & Barnes, B. (1959). The structure of Coccoliths from the English Chalk. Geological Magazine. 96: 321-328. gs

    Black, M. (1971a). Coccoliths of the Speeton Clay and Sutterby Marl. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society. 38: 381-424. gs

    Black, M. (1972). British Lower Cretaceous Coccoliths. I-Gault Clay (Part 1). Palaeontographical Society Monograph. 126: 1-48. gs

    Bown, P. R. & Concheyro, A. (2004). Lower Cretaceous calcareous nannoplankton from the Neuquen Basin, Argentina. Marine Micropaleontology. 52(1-4): 51-84. gs

    Bown, P. R. (2005c). Early to Mid-Cretaceous Calcareous Nannoplankton from the Northwest Pacific Ocean, Leg 198, Shatsky Rise. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results. 198: 1-82. gs

    Bown, P. R., Rutledge, D. C., Crux, J. A. & Gallagher, L. T. (1998). Early Cretaceous. In, Bown, P. R. (ed.) Calcareous Nannofossil Biostratigraphy. British Micropalaeontological Society Publication Series. 86-131. gs

    Bown, P. R., Gibbs, S. J., Sheward, R., O’Dea, S. & Higgins, D. (2014). Searching for cells: the potential of fossil coccospheres in coccolithophore research. Journal of Nannoplankton Research. 34(special): 5-21. gs

    Bukry, D. (1969). Upper Cretaceous coccoliths from Texas and Europe. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions. Article 51 (Protista 2): 1-79. gs

    Burns, D. A. (1976). Nannofossils from the Lower and Upper Cretaceous deposits, Nettleton,Lincolnshire, England. Revista Española de Micropaleontología. 8(2): 279-300. gs

    Covington, J. M. & Wise, S. W. (1987). Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of a Lower Cretaceous deep-sea fan complex: Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 93 Site 603, lower continental rise off Cape Hatteras. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 93: 617-660. gs

    Covington, M. (1994). New taxa from the Niobrara Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Kansas, USA. Journal of Nannoplankton Research. 16: 121-131. gs

    Gale, A. S. et al. (2011). The uppermost Middle and Upper Albian succession at the Col de Palluel, Hautes-Alpes, France: An integrated study (ammonites, inoceramid bivalves, planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils, geochemistry, stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, cyclostratigraphy). Cretaceous Research. 32: 59-130. gs

    Górka, H. (1957). Les Coccolithophoridés du Maestrichtien supérieur de Pologne. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 2: 239-284. gs

    Grün, W. & Allemann, F. (1975). The Lower Cretaceous of Caravaca (Spain): Berriasian Calcareous Nannoplankton of the Miravetes Section (Subbetic Zone, Prov. of Murcia). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 68: 147-211. gs

    Grün, W. & Zweili, F. (1980). Das kalkige Nannoplankton der Dogger-Malm-Grenze im Berner Jura bei Liesberg (Schweiz). Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt. 123: 231-341. gs

    Huh, J. M. & Smith, C. I. (1972). Coccoliths and related calcareous nannofossils from the Upper Cretaceous Fencepost Limstone of Northwestern Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan. 24(3): 17-22. gs

    Kennedy, W. J. et al. (2000). Integrated stratigraphy across the Aptian-Albian boundary in the Marnes Bleues, at the Col de Pre _-Guittard, Arnayon (Drome), and at Tartonne (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence), France: a candidate Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Boundary Point for the base of the Albian Stage. Cretaceous Research. 21: 591-720. gs

    Mai, H. (2001). New coccolithophorid taxa fom the Guelhemmerberg airshaft. Lower Paleocene, The Netherlands. Micropaleontology. 47: 144-154. gs

    Mai, H., von Salis, K., Willems, H. & Romein, A. J. T. (1997a). Fossil coccospheres from the K/T boundary section from Geulhemmerberg, The Netherlands. Micropaleontology. 43(281-302): -. gs

    Perch-Nielsen, K. (1968c). Der Feinbau und die Klassifikation der Coccolithen aus dem Maastrichtien von Danemark. Biologiske Skrifter. Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. 16: 1-96. gs

    Perch-Nielsen, K. (1973). Neue Coccolithen aus dem Maastrichtien von Danemark, Madagaskar und Agypten. Geological Society of Denmark, Bulletin. 22: 306-333. gs

    Pienaar, R. N. (1968). Upper Cretacous coccolithophorids from Zululand, South Africa. Palaeontology. 11(3): 361-367. gs

    Pospichal, J. J. & Wise, S. W. (1990b). Maestrichtian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of Maud Rise ODP leg 113 sites 689 and 690, Weddell Sea. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results. 113: 465-487. gs

    Reinhardt, P. (1965). Neue Familien für fossile Kalkflagellaten (Coccolithophoriden, Coccolithineen). Monatsberichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 7: 30-40. gs

    Roth, P. H. & Thierstein, H. R. (1972). Calcareous nannoplankton: Leg 14 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 12: 546-559. gs

    Thibault, N. (2010). Calcareous nannofossils from the boreal Upper Campanian- Maastrichtian chalk of Denmark. Journal of Nannoplankton Research. 30(1): 39-56. gs

    Varol, O. & Girgis, M. (1994). New taxa and taxonomy of some Jurassic to Cretaceous calcareous nannofossils. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen. 192: 221-253. gs

    Wind, F. H. & Wise, S. W. (1983). Correlation of upper Campanian-lower Maestrichtian calcareous nannofossil assemblages in drill and piston cores from the Falkland Plateau, southwest Atlantic Ocean. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 71: 551-563. gs


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    Biscutum constans compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 20-11-2019

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