Pappomonas borealis HOL

Classification: Coccolithophores -> Holococcoliths -> open-tube -> Trigonaspis -> Pappomonas borealis HOL
Sister taxa: P. borealis HOL, T. melvillea, T. minutissima, P. garrisonii HOL, T. sp.,


Citation: Pappomonas borealis (Manton, Sutherland and McCully 1976) Thomsen and Østergaard 2014 HOL
Rank: Species
Synonyms: Trigonaspis diskoensis Thomsen 1980 - this was the name for the holococcolith phase until it was established to be an alternate life-cycle phase.

Distinguishing features: BCs flat plates, with monolayer of crystallites.
Tower coccoliths occur around coccosphere but higher at flagellar pole, centre of tube narrower;

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: Trigonaspis diskoensis *

Size: Cell spherical 5-6 µm; CFCs 1.5-2.5 µm high, ca. 1 µm wide; BCs ca. 1-1.5 µm long

Biology & life-cycles: Thomsen & Ostergaard (2014) established that the alternate life-cycle phase is Pappomonas borealis. This confirmed previous tentative observations - a combination cell of P. flabellifera var. borealis with Trigonaspis coccoliths was illustrated by Thomsen et al. (1991) but identification as T. diskoensis was uncertain.

See also: Pappomonas borealis - diploid phase;

Search data:
TagsLITHS: holococcolith, flaring distally, elliptical, sub-circular, cylindrical, hollow, CA: H: fabric-triangular-xtals, vacant, PROCESS: hollow,
CSPH: spherical, equant, CFC, CFC-higher, polymorphic, V-UNITS: px-plate, V-prominent, R-UNITS: spine, R-prominent,
MetricsLith size: 0.9->1.5µm; Coccosphere size: 5->8µm;
Sources: lith size (BC diam) from Thomsen et al. 2015; csph size from illustrated specs
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton
First occurrence (base): within No known fossil record modern (0.00-0.00Ma, base in stage). Data source: [JRY rough estimate]

Plot of occurrence data:

  • (NB There is no histogram as there are no occurrence records for the taxon in the Neptune database) Parent: Trigonaspis


    Manton, I., Sutherland, J. & McCully, M. (1976). Fine structural observations on coccolithophorids from South Alaska in the genera Papposphaera Tangen and Pappomonas Manton and Oates. British Phycological Journal. 11: 225-234. gs :: ::

    Thomsen, H. A. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2014). Coccolithophorids in polar waters: Pappomonas spp. revisited. Acta Protozoologica. 53: 235-256. gs :: ::

    Thomsen, H. A. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2015). Coccolithophorids in Polar Waters: Trigonaspis spp. revisited. Acta Protozoologica. 54: 85-96. gs :: ::

    Thomsen, H. A. (1980). Two species of Trigonaspis gen. nov. (Prymnesiophyceae) from West Greenland. Phycologia. 19(3): 218-229. gs :: ::

    Thomsen, H. A. (2016). Baltic Sea coccolithophores – an overview of insights into their taxonomy and ecology from the last 40 years. Journal of Nannoplankton Research. 36(2): 97-119. gs :: view :: open

    Thomsen, H. A., Ostergaard, J. B. & Hansen, L. E. (1991). Heteromorphic life histories in Arctic coccolithophorids (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 27: 634-642. gs :: ::

    Young, J. R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2003). A guide to extant coccolithophore taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, Special Issue. 1: 1-132. gs :: view :: open


    Pappomonas borealis HOL compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 15-7-2020

    Taxon Search:
    Advanced Search

    Short stable page link: Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

    Comments (0)

    No comments yet on this page. Please do add comments if you spot any problems, or have information to share

    Add Comment

    * Required information
    Captcha Image
    Powered by Commentics