Papposphaera


Classification: Coccolithophores -> Coccolith families inc sed -> Papposphaeraceae -> Papposphaera
Sister taxa: Balaniger, Formonsella, Kataspinifera, Pappomonas, Papposphaera, Picarola, Pocillithus, Pseudowigwamma, Quaternariella, Ventimolina, Vexillarius, Wigwamma,

Daughter taxa: (blue => in age window 0-800Ma)
Ubiquitous species
Central areas with axial cross;
Process 2-4 µm high, supporting flat cone of four large elements, these form an almost continuous outer layer to the coccosphere.
Antarctic Species
Central areas with axial cross;
Process 1.5-2.5 µm high, low stem supports fan-shaped calyx of four large elements with rounded distal edges.
Central areas open; no process; rim elements separated and so wall is discontinuous. Crystallites of two types occur alternately along the scale periphery.
Arctic Species
Central areas with axial cross and 2-4 additional longitudinal bars;
Process 2-4 µm high with small calyx of 4 radially diverging blades.
Central areas with axial cross and a 1 or a few extra bars
Process 2-4 µm high ending distally in four sub-parallel crystallites, each ca. 1 µm long (no real calyx).
Central areas with axial cross
Process 2-4 µm high with small calyx of 4 radially diverging blades.
BC central areas with transverse crossbar; CFC central areas with axial cross
Process 2-4 µm high with small calyx of 4 radially diverging blades.
BC central areas open; CFC central areas with axial cross
Process 2-4 µm high with delicate calyx of 4 radially diverging blades.
Warm water, mostly mid photic species
Central areas with axial cross
Processes ca 3.5 µm long with calyx-like distal appendage.
Central areas with axial cross;
Process 5-6 µm high, tall stem supports narrow cone of four elements.
Central area with axial cross;
Process ca. 0.5-1.5 µm, robust with narrow conical calyx of four plates.
Dimorphic: a few CFCs with tall processes (ca. 1.5 µm); BCs with short processes (<1 µm).
Central area with diagonal cross
Process ca. 0.5-1.5 µm, robust with calyx of three or four rods.
Dimorphic: CFCs with tall processes (ca. 1.5 µm) with calyx of 4 (or 3?) rods perpendicular to process. BCs with shorter processes and calyx of 3 diverging rods.
Central area structure not determined;
Process ca. 3 µm, delicate with narrow calyx of four plates.
Varimorphic: calices vary in width.
Central area with axial cross;
Process ca. 0.5-1.5 µm, robust with radiate calyx of four plates.
Varimorphic: process height varies continuously along coccosphere.
Central area with axial cross;
Process ca. 0.5-1.5 µm, with radiate calyx of three plates.
Varimorphic: process height varies continuously along coccosphere.
Central area with axial cross;
Process ca 1.0-2.5 µm, formed of three radiate plates which extend from base to apex without a distinct stem.
Varimorphic: process height varies continuously along coccosphere.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species

Taxonomy:

Citation: Papposphaera Tangen, 1972
Rank: Genus
Type species: Papposphaera lepida Tangen, 1972

Distinguishing features: Coccolith distal rim serrated - elements pentagonal;
Coccosphere monomorphic, varimorphic, or dimorphic, calices with 4-fold (or, rarely, 3-fold) symmetry

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: Papposphaera * , ,


Morphology remarks: Coccoliths elliptical; outer rim elements with angular tops, forming serrated margin. Species separated mainly on central area and process structures. In varimorphic species the size of the process depends on the location in the periplast.

Ecology & Biogeography: Best known from Polar waters but also occur at lower latitudes, but rare and mostly in mid/lower photic zone.

Biology & life-cycles: Three associatations of Pappopshaera heterococcolith phases with holococcolith morpotypes prevously assigned to Turrisphaera have been established (Thomsen et al. 1991, 2016). In addition a P. lepida combination coccosphere with an unidentifiable Turrisphaera type holococcolith has been seen (Young unpubl. obs.) and P. polybotrys HOL has been seen in combination with an unidentifiable Papposphaera herococcolith. So the association of the holococcolith and heterococcolith stages is well-supported. Nonetheless, there remains the possibility that some Papposphaera species may prove to have different holococcolith phases.

Search data:
TagsLITHS: murolith, elliptical, RIM: outer wall non-imbricate, rim-narrow, rim-top crenulate, CA: cross, cross-axial, PROCESS: calyx, spine,
CSPH: oblate (broad), ovoid, spherical, DETAILS: ca_disjunct,
MetricsLith size: 0.5->1.5µm; Coccosphere size: 4->12µm;
Sources:
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

See also: Papposphaera HOL ;

Geological Range:
Notes: NB We previously suggested on this website a range through to the Palaeogene but the fossil specimens on which this was based are now placed in a separate genus, Pocilithus [JRY 2016]
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): at top of No known fossil record modern (100% up, 0Ma, in stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

References:

Cros, L. & Fortuño, J. -M. (2002). Atlas of northwestern Mediterranean coccolithophores. Scientia Marina. 66: 186-. gs

Tangen, K. (1972). Papposphaera lepida, gen. nov. n. sp., a new marine coccolithophorid from Norwegian coastal waters. Norwegian Journal of Botany. 19: 171-178. gs

Thomsen, H. A. & Egge, J. K. (2016). Papposphaera heldalii sp. nov. (Haptophyta, Papposphaeraceae) from Svalbard. Acta Protozoologica. 55: 27-32. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Ostergaard, J. B. & Hansen, L. E. (1991). Heteromorphic life histories in Arctic coccolithophorids (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 27: 634-642. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Ostergaard, J. B. & Heldal, M. (2016e). Coccolithophores in Polar Waters: Papposphaera sagittifera HET and HOL revisited. Acta Protozoologica. 55: 33-50. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Heldal, M. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2016c). Coccolithophores in Polar Waters: Papposphaera arctica HET and HOL revisited. Micropaleontology. 61(6): 419-427. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Heldal, M. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2016d). Coccolithophores in Polar Waters: Papposphaera sarion HET and HOL revisited. Micropaleontology. 61(6): 429-438. gs

Young, J. R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2003). A guide to extant coccolithophore taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, Special Issue. 1: 1-132. gs


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Papposphaera compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 21-7-2019

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Short stable page link: http://mikrotax.org/Nannotax3/index.php?id=1003 Go to Archive.is to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes



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