Acarinina echinata

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> muricate non-spinose -> Truncorotaloididae -> Acarinina -> Acarinina echinata
Sister taxa: A. medizzai, A. collactea, A. pentacamerata, A. aspensis, A. echinata, A. pseudosubsphaerica, A. alticonica, A. soldadoensis, A. interposita, A. cuneicamerata, A. angulosa, A. africana, A. sibaiyaensis, A. esnehensis, A. mckannai, A. subsphaerica, A. bullbrooki, A. punctocarinata, A. boudreauxi, > >>


Citation: Acarinina echinata (Bolli 1957)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Catapsydrax echinata
Taxonomic discussion: Bolli (1957b) originally placed echinata in Catapsydrax because of the presence of an umbilical bulla. However, the muricate wall texture of this species is distinctly different from the cancellate spinose wall texture of the type species of Catapsydrax (Globigerina dissimilis Cushman and Bermúdez, 1937). Forms with sutural bullae (Pl.9.10, Figs. 19-22) are included in this species because of their distinctly muricate test, and compact coiling. Further investigation may reveal that these forms should be differentiated from A. echinata s.s.
Specimens identified by Blow (1979) as Globigerinita echinata echinata and Globigerinita echinata africana have cancellate wall textures and are therefore unrelated to Acarinina echinata. Huber (1991, p. 439, pl. 5, fig. 17) recorded a mid-Oligocene bullate, globular, cancellate, spinose form similar to the “spinose variant” of (the lower Miocene) “Globoquadrina dehiscens” recorded by Berggren and others (1983; pl. 1, figs. 5-10) from the lower Miocene of DSDP Site 516 on the Rio Grande Rise, South Atlantic Ocean. We view these forms as unrelated to Acarinina echinata. [Berggren et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Catapsydrax echinatus;

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Characterized by its compact coiling, muricate surface texture, and presence of a kummerform or bullate final chamber and/ or sutural bullae. Differs from Acarinina medizzai by lacking a visible umbilicus and presence of kummerform or bullate final chamber.

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Characterized by its compact coiling, muricate surface texture, and presence of a kummerform or bullate final chamber and/ or sutural bullae. Differs from Acarinina medizzai by lacking a visible umbilicus and presence of kummerform or bullate final chamber. [Berggren et al. 2006]

Wall type: Moderately to coarsely muricate, normal perforate, nonspinose. [Berggren et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Test compact, biconvex, peripheral outline weakly to derately lobate, axial periphery rounded, more rarely becoming slightly subangular; chambers globular, 11-13 in adult tests increasing rapidly in size until ultimate chamber, which is usually kummerform and often connected to a variably shaped bulla that often covers the umbilicus and part or most of the umbilical sutures, 3½-4 chambers in the final whorl; umbilical sutures radial, weakly to moderately depressed, spiral sutures radial, weakly depressed to indistinct; aperture variable in size, shape, position and number depending on the characteristics of the bullate final chamber, usually a single low-arched opening directed towards the umbilicus and surrounded by a narrow lip, more rarely two or three small, low arched openings directed along umbilical sutures. [Berggren et al. 2006]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.30 mm, thickness 0.25 mm. [Berggren et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
umb chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
sp chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Narrowly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
umbilical or test sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Coarsely muricateshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
spiral sutures:Weakly depresseddiameter mm:0.3width mm:breadth mm:0.25
final-whorl chambers:3.5-4.0

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: This taxon has been recorded from the tropics/subtropics (e.g., Blake Nose; Trinidad) and southern middle and high latitudes (e.g., New Zealand; Kerguelen Plateau). It probably occurs at a number of other sites but may have been overlooked or recorded under a different species name. [Berggren et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Low latitudes and southern middle to high latitudes; based on Berggren et al. (2006b)

Isotope paleobiology: No data available. [Berggren et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy δ13C and relatively light δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): this study

Phylogenetic relations: May have evolved from Acarinina pseudosubsphaerica n.sp. during the middle Eocene. This is may be the youngest ranging species of the acarininid lineage. [Berggren et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Acarinina pseudosubsphaerica - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Berggren et al. (2006) fig9.2.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zone E10 (Bolli, 1957b) to Zone E16 (Wade, 2004). At Blake Nose (ODP Sites 1052 and 1053) A. echinata ranges from middle Eocene Zone P13 (=Zone E12 of this paper) through (at least) upper Eocene Zone P15 (=E14) and Chron C16n.2n (Wade, 2004); in Trinidad, Bolli (1957b) recorded it from the Globorotalia lehneri through Truncorotaloides rohri Zone; in New Zealand this species ranges from the Globigerina index through the Globigerina linaperta Zone. May range into the Oligocene (Huber, 1991). [Berggren et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within O1 zone (32.10-33.90Ma, top in Rupelian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas
First occurrence (base): in lower part of E10 zone (30% up, 42.8Ma, in Lutetian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Berggren et al. 2006 - Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, chapter 9, p. 284


Berggren, W.A.; Pearson, P.N.; Huber, B.T. & Wade, B.S., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Acarinina. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 257-326.

Bermudez, P.J., (1937). Nuevas especies de Foraminiferos del Eoceno de las cercanias de Guanajay, provincia Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural, 11(4): 237-248.

Blow, W.H., (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea), 2. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1413 pp.

Bolli, H.M., (1957). Planktonic foraminifera from the Eocene Navet and San Fernando formations of Trinidad. In: Loeblich, A.R., Jr. et al. (Editors), Studies in Foraminifera: U.S. National Museum Bulletin 215. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 155-172.

Huber, B.T., (1991). Paleogene and Early Neogene Planktonic Foraminifer Biostratigraphy of Sites 738 and 744, Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Indian Ocean). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 119: 427-449.

Jenkins, D.G., (1971). New Zealand Cenozoic Planktonic Foraminifera. New Zealand Geological Survey, Paleontological Bulletin, 42: 1-278.

Saito, T., (1962). Eocene planktonic foraminifera from Hahajima (Hillsborough Island). Transactions and Proceedings of the Paleontological Society of Japan, New Series, 45: 209-225.

Wade, B.S., (2004). Planktonic Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and mechanisms in the extinction of Morozovella in the Late Middle Eocene. Marine Micropaleontology, 51: 23-38.


Acarinina echinata compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 22-3-2018

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