Catapsydrax howei

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> spinose -> Globigerinidae -> Catapsydrax -> Catapsydrax howei
Sister taxa: C. dissimilis, C. globiformis, C. africanus, C. howei, C. unicavus, C. sp.,


Citation: Catapsydrax howei (Blow and Banner 1962)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerinita howei
Taxonomic discussion: The loosely coiled test with large circular, infralaminal apertures of Catapsydrax howei somewhat resembles Recent Globigerinoides, suggesting a shallow habitat in the water column. We illustrate the holotype in SEM for the first time (Pl.5.2, Figs. 9-12) along with newly collected specimens from the type locality (Pl.5.2, Figs. 13-16). Catapsydrax golicynensis Menkes from the upper Eocene of the Black Sea exhibits the large arched aperture of this species and is a probable synonym. The specimen figured by Warraich and Ogasawara (2001) is a five-chambered form that does not match the morphology of C. howei. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Catapsydrax golicynensis;
Globigerinita howei;

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Distinguished from C. africanus by its larger, more loosely coiled test, large globular bulla with large, circular, infralaminal apertures. C. globiformis is smaller, has a spherical-shaped test with a low slightly inflated bulla with small circular, infralaminal apertures.

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Catapsydrax howei is distinguished from C. africanus by its larger, more loosely coiled test, large globular bulla with large, circular, infralaminal apertures. Catapsydrax globiformis is smaller, has a spherical-shaped test with a low slightly inflated bulla with small circular, infralaminal apertures. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Wall type: Cancellate, probably spinose in life, ruber/sacculifer-type wall texture. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Low trochospiral, lobulate test with generally 3 chambers, somewhat loosely coiled, in the final whorl. Chambers inflated, globular increasing rapidly in size with a large globular, inflated bulla covering the umbilicus; in spiral view 3 globular chambers increasing rapidly in size, sutures straight to slightly curved, moderated depressed; in umbilical view dominated by a large inflated bulla with 3 large circular, infralaminal apertures with a continuous, thickened imperforate rim facing each suture; sutures straight, somewhat strongly depressed; in edge view globular in shape with bulla showing one infralaminal aperture opening onto the suture line. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Size: Holotype maximum diameter 0.54 mm, thickness 0.53 mm. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Interiomarginal
umb chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thick lip
sp chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Infralaminal
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
spiral sutures:Strongly depresseddiameter mm:0.54width mm:breadth mm:0.53
final-whorl chambers:3.0-3.0

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Known from tropical to mid latitude sites. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Low to middle latitudes; based on Olsson et al. (2006c)

Isotope paleobiology: No data available. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light δ13C and very heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Keller (1985)

Phylogenetic relations: Catapsydrax howei probably evolved from C. unicavus in the middle Eocene by becoming larger and more loosely coiled, and developing a large, globular, inflated bulla with large circular, infralaminal apertures. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Catapsydrax unicavus - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 f5.1.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zone E9 to E16. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within E16 zone (33.90-34.68Ma, top in Priabonian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 f5.1
First occurrence (base): within E9 zone (43.23-43.85Ma, base in Lutetian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 f5.1

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, chapter 5, p. 72


Blow, W.H. & Banner, F.T., (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In: Eames, F.E. et al. (Editors), Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 61-151.

Menkes, M.A., (1975). Representatives of the genus Catapsydrax in the Eocene deposits of the South Ukraine. Akad Nauk SSSR, Sib Otd, Inst Geol Geofiz, Trudy, 333: 281.

Olsson, R.K.; Pearson, P.N. & Huber, B.T., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Cushman Foundation Special Publication. 41 Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 67-110.

Warraich, M.Y. & Ogasawara, K., (2001). Tethyan Paleocene-Eocene planktic foraminifera from the Rakhi Nala and Zinda Pir land sections of the Sulaiman Range, Pakistan. Science Reports of the Institute of Geosciences, University of Tsukuba, Section B = Geological Sciences, 22: 1-59.


Catapsydrax howei compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 22-3-2018

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