Globigerinatheka index


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> spinose -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinatheka -> Globigerinatheka index
Sister taxa: G. semiinvoluta, G. tropicalis, G. luterbacheri, G. euganea, G. index, G. curryi, G. barri, G. korotkovi, G. kugleri, G. mexicana, G. subconglobata, G. sp.,

Taxonomy

Citation: Globigerinatheka index (Finlay 1939)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerinoides index
Synonyms:
Taxonomic discussion: At high latitudes (including the type locality), specimens of G. index with typically incised sutures commonly display poorly developed secondary spiral apertures or are even devoid of them. Even though the overall shape, which recalls some Neogene Globigerinoides, and the incised sutures differentiate G.
index from all other globigerinathekids, this species has frequently been misidentified (see synonymy list). Hagn (1956) described Globigerinoides macrostoma as a new species. According to Bolli (1972), G. macrostoma should be considered as a junior synonym of G. index, with which it shares the same features: Hagn’s figures of the specimen he identified as G. index is in fact attributable to G. tropicalis, and he created the new species G. macrostoma for the ‘true G. index’.
Judging from the original figures, the paratype of G. index illustrated by Finlay in his fig. 87 seems to exhibit some similarities in general shape with G. korotkovi Keller, but redrawing of Finlay’s paratype by Hornibrook (1958) shows well the incised sutures lacking in Keller’s species. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides index;
Globigerinoides macrostoma;

Type images:

Short diagnosis: Well defined incised sutures and large, high-arched, primary aperture located above the suture between the first two chambers of the final whorl.

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.

Description


Diagnostic characters: Globigerinatheka index is distinguished by its well defined incised sutures and large, high-arched, primary aperture located above the suture between the first two chambers of the final whorl. This taxon differs from G. tropicalis by its semicircular, rimmed apertures and deeply incised distinct sutures. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Wall type: Spinose, cancellate, frequently encrusted, with mainly cylindrical pores, about 4 to 5 mm in diameter. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Test slightly elongate, subrectangular in outline, rather compact, broadly rounded and subrectangular in side view; early chambers poorly visible, arranged in a low trochospire of possibly 2 to 3 whorls, with the last whorl consisting of 3 inflated chambers at least twice as large as earlier chambers, antepenultimate and penultimate chambers of almost equal size separated by a vertical suture in umbilical view, the last chamber making almost one-half of the whole test; sutures of the inner chambers poorly visible, possibly straight or slightly curved, sutures in the last whorl distinct, deeply incised, straight and radial; primary aperture, umbilical, a rather high and large, symmetrical arch at the base of the last chamber, frequently bordered by a thick lip, two medium-sized, semicircular arched, secondary apertures at the base of the last chamber above the sutures of previous chambers. Bullae are not common. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Size: Dimensions for population range from 0.35 mm to 0.55 mm. Diameter of the holotype 0.4 mm. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Subquadratechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
umb chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thick lip
sp chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
spiral sutures:Strongly depresseddiameter mm:0.4width mm:breadth mm:
final-whorl chambers:3.0-3.0

Biogeography and Palaeobiology


Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan, but more abundant in high latitudes. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Cosmopolitan; based on Premoli Silva et al. (2006)

Isotope paleobiology: Stable isotope data indicates depleted ∂18O and enriched ∂13C values suggesting a mixed layer habitat, comparable to co-occurring Acarinina, but possibly with a greater tendency to sink at gametogenesis (Boersma and others, 1979; Pearson and others, 1993, 2001). This paleohabitat is supported by boron isotope data (Pearson and Palmer, 1999). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy δ13C and relatively light δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Boersma et al. (1979); Pearson et al. (2001a); Pearson & Palmer (1999)

Phylogenetic relations: There is a general agreement that G. index is related to G. tropicalis, which is its tropical equivalent according to Blow (1969) and Jenkins (1971). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinatheka subconglobata - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Described from the middle Eocene of New Zealand, the extinction of G. index has been used for approximating the upper boundary of the Eocene at the high southern latitudes (Jenkins, 1971). It appears in upper E9. At middle latitudes G. index decreases in abundance in mid Zone E15 and disappears at the E15/E16 boundary (Berggren and Pearson, Chapter 2, this volume). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
The LAD of Globigerinatheka index marks the base of zone E16 / top of E15 (Wade et al. 2011)
Last occurrence (top): at top of E15 zone (100% up, 34.7Ma, in Priabonian stage). Data source: zonal marker (Wade et al. 2011)
First occurrence (base): in upper part of E9 zone (80% up, 43.4Ma, in Lutetian stage). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 - Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, chapter 7, p. 183

References:

Baumann, P., (1970). Mikropalaentologische und stratigraphische Untersuchungen der obereozaenen-oligozaenen Scaglia im zentralen Apennin (Italien). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 63: 1133-1211.

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Blow, W.H. & Banner, F.T., (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In: Eames, F.E. et al. (Editors), Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 61-151.

Blow, W.H., (1969). Late middle Eocene to Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In: Bronnimann, P. and Renz, H.H. (Editors), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva, 1967, Leiden, Netherlands, pp. 380-381.

Blow, W.H., (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1413 pp.

Boersma, A.; Shackleton, N.J.; Hall, M.A. & Given, Q., (1979). Carbon and oxygen isotope records at DSDP site 384 (North Atlantic) and some Paleocene paleotemperatures and carbon isotope variations in the Atlantic Ocean. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 43: 695-717.

Bolli, H.M., (1957). Planktonic foraminifera from the Eocene Navet and San Fernando formations of Trinidad. In: Loeblich, A.R., Jr. et al. (Editors), Studies in Foraminifera: U.S. National Museum Bulletin 215. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 155-172.

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Hagn, H., (1956). Geologische und Palaontologische untersuchungen im Tertial des Monte Brione und seiner Umgebung. Palaeontographica Abt. A, 107(3-6): 173.

Hornibrook, N.d.B., (1958). New Zealand Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary foraminiferal zones and some overseas correlations. Micropaleontology, 4: 25-38.

Huber, B.T., (1991). Paleogene and early Neogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of ODP Leg 119 Sites 738 and 744, Kerguelen Plateau (southern Indian Ocean). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 119: 427-449.

Huber, B.T., (1991). Paleocene and Early Neogene Planktonic Foraminifer Biostratigraphy of Sites 738 and 744, Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Indian Ocean). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 119: 427-449.

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McKeel, D.R. & Lipps, J.J., (1975). Eocene and Oligocene planktonic foraminifera from the Central and Southern Oregon Coast Range. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 5(4): 249-269.

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Nocchi, M.; Parisi, G.; Monaco, P.; Monechi, S. & Madile, M., (1988). Eocene and early Oligocene micropaleontology and paleoenvironments in SE Umbria, Italy. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 67: 181-244.

Nocchi, M.; Amici, E. & Premoli Silva, I., (1991). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Paleogene faunas from the subantarctic transect, Leg 114. In: Ciesielski, P.F., Kristoffersen, Y. and al., e. (Editors), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, Texas, pp. 233-273.

Pearson, P.N. & Palmer, M.R., (1999). Middle Eocene seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Science, 284: 1824-1826.

Pearson, P.N.; Shackleton, N.J. & Hall, M.A., (1993). Stable isotope paleoecology of middle Eocene planktonic foraminifera and multi-species isotope stratigraphy, DSDP Site 523, South Atlantic. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 23: 123-140.

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Premoli Silva, I.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Globigerinatheka and Orbulinoides. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 169-212.

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Toumarkine, M., (1975). Middle and Late Eocene planktonic foraminifera from the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Leg 32 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 32: 735-751.

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Toumarkine, M., (1983). Les Foraminifères planctoniques de l’Eocène moyen et supérieur des régions tropicales à temperées chaudes. PhD Thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, 83-05, 1-219 pp.

Wade et al 2016 [sorry, not in our bibliography yet]


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Globigerinatheka index compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 25-11-2017

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