Globigerinatheka kugleri

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> spinose -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinatheka -> Globigerinatheka kugleri
Sister taxa: G. semiinvoluta, G. tropicalis, G. luterbacheri, G. euganea, G. index, G. curryi, G. barri, G. korotkovi, G. kugleri, G. mexicana, G. subconglobata, G. sp.,


Citation: Globigerinatheka kugleri (Bolli, Loeblich & Tappan 1957)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerapsis kugleri
Taxonomic discussion: Bolli et al. (1957) included a large specimen in G. kugleri, which Proto Decima and Bolli (1970) selected as the holotype of their new species G. curryi. Bolli (1972) considered G. kugleri as a subspecies of G. mexicana. According to him, G. kugleri differs from mexicana and barri in having larger, more globular chambers arranged in a loosely coiled initial spire, resulting in less compact shape. However, Bolli (1972) also included two specimens that have typical kugleri morphology (his pl. 2, figs. 15-16) in G. barri because of the presence of bullae. In disagreement with Bolli (1972), we consider these two specimens as belonging to G. kugleri. In fact, G. kugleri differs from mexicana and barri in having a much less compact test, which is subtriangular in outline, becoming subglobular only because of bullae, more depressed sutures, a much looser coiling-mode and more rapidly enlarging globular chambers in the last whorl. It differs from G. curryi by its subtriangular and more lobate outline, shorter initial spire with less numerous chambers, and smaller size which never exceeds 0.5 mm. The specimen illustrated by Bronnimann (1952) in text-figs. 3d-f as G. barri was later included in G. kugleri (Globigerapsis) by Bolli and others (1957, p. 34), an attribution followed here, even though Bolli (1972) included the same specimen in G. mexicana mexicana, as suggested by Saito (1962).
Some specimens identified by Blow (1979) as G. mexicana mexicana (pl. 198, figs. 2, 4-5) and G. mexicana howei (pl. 198, fig. 6) show a subtriangular test outline and the last two chambers are almost of the same size. Both these features are more typical of G. kugleri than of G. mexicana, whereas the specimen attributed to G. howei does not possess a bulla; consequently, they are all included under G. kugleri.
Blow (1979) considered G. subconglobata as a junior synonym of G. kugleri (p. 819), but according to our researches, these two species are discrete, separate taxa. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerapsis kugleri;

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Test subtriangular in outline, rather lobate, 3 chambers in the outer whorl, rapidly increasing in size, sutures depressed in the outer whorl. Low, arched, primary and secondary sutural apertures, may be covered by slightly inflated bullae.

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Test subtriangular in outline, rather lobate, with three chambers in the outer whorl rapidly increasing in size as added, sutures depressed in the outer whorl; low arched primary and secondary sutural apertures that may be covered by slightly inflated bullae. G. kugleri differs from G. mexicana by the subtriangular outline, its distinct sutures and low arched apertures. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Wall type: Spinose, cancellate with pores 4-5 mm in diameter. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Test subtriangular in outline, rather lobate; 2 to 3 whorls; initial coil very tight, composed of an unknown number of very small globular chambers; second coil much looser with 4 globular chambers increasing gradually but rather rapidly in size as added; last coil consisting of 4 very rapidly enlarging globular chambers; the antepenultimate chamber is twice as large as the previous one and about half the size of the last formed chamber; sutures in the inner coil initially not visible, then straight and radial, rather depressed; primary aperture an umbilical low arch; two to three rather small arched secondary apertures at the base of the last chamber; primary and secondary apertures may be covered by small slightly inflated bullae. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Size: Greatest diameter of holotype 0.44 mm, greatest thickness 0.47 mm; paratypes range from 0.36 to 0.47 mm in diameter. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Multiple
umb chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Coalescing portici
sp chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:N/Aperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:N/Awall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:-
spiral sutures:Strongly depresseddiameter mm:0.44width mm:breadth mm:0.47
final-whorl chambers:4.0-4.0

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Tropical to temperate regions. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Isotope paleobiology: Boersma and others (1987) recorded relatively negative ∂18O for this species from DSDP Sites 357 and 548, indicating a shallow planktonic habitat. This is supported by boron isotopic data (Pearson and Palmer, 1999). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Phylogenetic relations: According to Bolli (1972), G. kugleri is related to the G. mexicana group, but this relationship is not fully proved. On the other hand, Blow (1979) considered G. kugleri as the ancestral member of the lineage evolving to beckmanni via G. curryi and G. euganea in the middle Eocene, a hypothesis followed here. Blow (1979) also suggested that G. kugleri is linked through transitional forms to G. index. However, the specimens representing the so-called transitions (Blow, 1979, pl. 174, figs. 7-8) do not support Blow’s view. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinatheka subconglobata - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: It appears at the base of Zone E9 and extends up to the top of Zone E13. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within E13 zone (37.99-39.97Ma, top in Bartonian stage). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1
First occurrence (base): at base of E9 zone (0% up, 43.9Ma, in Lutetian stage). Data source: zonal marker (Wade et al. 2011)

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 - Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, chapter 7 p190


Blow, W.H. & Banner, F.T., (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In: Eames, F.E. et al. (Editors), Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 61-151.

Blow, W.H., (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea), 2. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1413 pp.

Bolli, H.M., (1972). The genus Globigerinatheka Bronnimann. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 2(3): 109-136.

Bolli, H.M.; Loeblich, A.R., Jr. & Tappan, H., (1957). Planktonic foraminiferal families Hantkeninidae, Orbulinidae, Globorotaliidae and Globotruncanidae. In: Loeblich, A.R., Jr. et al. (Editors), Studies in Foraminifera, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 215. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp. 3-50.

Brönnimann, P., (1952). Globigerinoita and Globigerinatheka, new genera from the Tertiary of Trinidad, B.W.I. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication, 3(1): 25-28.

Cushman, J.A., (1925). New foraminifera from the Upper Eocene of Mexico. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research, 1(3): 4-9.

Finlay, H.J., (1939). New Zealand foraminifera: Key species in stratigraphy - no. 2. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 69(1): 89-128.

Loeblich, A.R., Jr. & Tappan, H., (1957). Planktonic foraminifera of Paleocene and early Eocene Age from the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains. In: Loeblich, A.R., Jr. et al. (Editors), Studies in Foraminifera, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 215. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 173-198.

Mallory, V.S., (1959). Lower Tertiary biostratigraphy of the California Coast Ranges. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 416 pp.

Pearson, P.N. & Palmer, M.R., (1999). Middle Eocene seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Science, 284: 1824-1826.

Premoli Silva, I.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Globigerinatheka and Orbulinoides. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 169-212.

Proto Decima, F. & Bolli, H.M., (1970). Evolution and variability of Orbulinoides beckmanni (Saito). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 63(3): 883-905.

Pujol, C., (1983). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the South-Western Atlantic (Rio Grande Rise): Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 72. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 72: 623-673.

Saito, T., (1962). Eocene planktonic foraminifera from Hahajima (Hillsborough Island). Transactions and Proceedings of the Paleontological Society of Japan, New Series, 45: 209-225.

Stainforth, R.M.; Lamb, J.L.; Luterbacher, H.; Beard, J.H. & Jeffords, R.M., (1975). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal zonation and characteristics of index forms. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, 62: 1-425.

Toumarkine, M., (1983). Les Foraminifères planctoniques de l’Eocène moyen et supérieur des régions tropicales à temperées chaudes. PhD Thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, 83-05, 1-219 pp.

Warraich, M.Y. & Nishi, H., (2003). Eocene planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Sulaiman range, Indus Basin, Pakistan. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 33: 219-236.


Globigerinatheka kugleri compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 18-3-2018

Taxon Search:
Advanced Search

Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Comments (0)

No comments yet. Be the first!

Add Comment

* Required information
Captcha Image
Powered by Commentics