Globigerina bulloides

Classification: pf_neogene -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerina -> Globigerina bulloides
Sister taxa: G. bulloides, G. falconensis, G. umbilicata, G. sp.,


Citation: Globigerina bulloides d’Orbigny, 1826
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina bulloides

"The test of Gg. (Gg.) bulloides shows considerable variation in the number and shape of chambers in the final whorl and size of the aperture. This has resulted in the erection of a number of species, ...They are all regarded here as phenotypic variants of Gg. (Gg.) bulloides." [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

  • Globigerina quadrilatera Galloway & Wissler 1927 (Pleistocene California)
  • Globigerina bermudezi Seiglie, 1963 (Late Pleistocene to Recent Cariaco Basin and Caribbean)
  • Globigerina megastoma cariacoensis Rögl and Bolli, 1973 (Late Pleistocene to Recent, Tropical Atlantic)
  • Globigerina riveroae Bolli and Bermudez, 1965 (Pliocene, Venezuela). 

New SEM images of the holotype of Globigerina riveroae Bolli and Bermudez, 1965 indiacte a cancellate wall, and therefore this form has been moved out of synonymy of G. bulloides (Bridget Wade, November 2017).

Catalog entries: Globigerina bermudezi; Globigerina bulloides;
Globigerina megastoma cariacoensis;
Globigerina quadrilatera;

Type images:

Short diagnosis: No apertural lip

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Low trochospiral, chambers spherical to subspherical

Aperture: : Umbilical high symmetrical arch [Aze 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Coiling direction (in extant population): mixed with bias to sinistral

Wall type: Spinose; Hispid [Aze 2011]

Test morphology: Test low-trochospiral, usually four chambers in the final whorl; chambers spher- ical to subspherical, increasing regularly in size as added; sutures distinctly depressed; surface uniformly and densely perforate with simple spines. Aperture umbilical, a high symmetrical arch. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Size: >150µm

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Distribution is centered in temperate areas. Relative abundances decrease toward the tropics. The species is rare in equatorial areas. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 2 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, without symbionts. Based on ∂13C lighter than species with symbionts; also with relatively light ∂18O Cited sources (Aze et al. 2011 appendix S3): Vergnaud-Grazzini (1976); Durazzi (1981).

Phylogenetic relations: Molecular Genotypes recognised (data from PFR2 database, June 2017). References: Darling et al. 2000; Darling et al. 2003; Darling & Wade 2008; Morard et al. 2013; Ujiié & Lipps 2009; Seears et al. 2012; Stewart et al. 2001.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within N9 zone (14.24-15.10Ma, base in Langhian stage). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivisan 1983, p.36


Aze, T.; Ezard, T.H.G.; Purvis, A.; Coxall, H.K.; Stewart, D.R.M.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N.P., (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews, 86: 900-927.

Bolli, H.M. & Bermudez, P.J., (1965). Zonation based on planktonic foraminifera of middle Miocene to Pliocene warm-water sediments. Bol. Informativo, Asoc. Venez. Geol., Min. Petrol., 8(5): 121-149.

d'Orbigny, A., (1826). Tableau methodique de la Classe de Cephalopodes. Annals des Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 7: 245-314.

Darling, K.F. & Wade, C.M., (2008). The genetic diversity of planktic foraminifera and the global distribution of ribosomal RNA genotypes. Marine Micropaleontology, 67: 216–238.

Darling, K.F.; Wade, C.M.; Stewart, I.a.; Kroon, D.; Dingle, R. & Brown, A.J., (2000). Molecular evidence for genetic mixing of Arctic and Antarctic subpolar populations of planktonic foraminifers. Nature, 405: 43–7.

Darling, K.F.; Kucera, M.; Wade, C.M., von Langen, P. & Pak, D., (2003). Seasonal distribution of genetic types of planktonic foraminifer morphospecies in the Santa Barbara Channel and its paleoceanographic implications. Paleoceanography, 18: 1-11.

Durazzi 1981 [sorry, not in our bibliography yet]

Earland, A., (1934). Foraminifera. Part III. The Falklands sector of the Antarctic (excluding South Georgia). Discovery Reports, 10: 1-208.

Galloway, J.J. & Wissler, S.G., (1927). Pleistocene foraminifera from the Lomita Quarry, Palos Verdes Hills, California. Journal of Paleontology, 1(1): 35-87.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.

Morard, R.; Quillévéré, F.; Escarguel, G. & Garidel-thoron, T.D., (2013). Ecological modeling of the temperature dependence of cryptic species of planktonic foraminifera in the Southern Hemisphere. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 391: 13–33.

Rögl, F. & Bolli, H.M., (1973). Holocene to Pleistocene planktonik foraminifera of LEG 15, site 147 (Cariaco Basin (Trench), Caribbean Sea) and their climatic interpretation. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 15: 553-579.

Seears, H.A.; Darling, K.F. & Wade, C.M., (2012). Ecological partitioning and diversity in tropical planktonic foraminifera. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12(54): 1-15.

Seiglie, G.A., (1963). Una nueva especie del genero Globigerina del Reciente de Venezuela. Oriente Univ. Inst. Oceanogr. Bol., Cumana Venezuela, 2(1).

Stewart, I.A.; Darling, K.F.; Kroon, D.; Wade, C.M. & Troelstra, S.R., (2001). Genotypic variability in subarctic Atlantic planktic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, 43: 143-153.

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J.H., (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. J. Foraminifer. Res., 39: 145–154.

Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., (1976). Non-equilibrium isotopic compositions of shells of planktonic foraminifera in the Mediterranean Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 20: 263-276.


Globigerina bulloides compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 20-2-2018

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