Globigerinella calida

Classification: pf_neogene -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinella -> Globigerinella calida
Sister taxa: G. adamsi, G. calida, G. praesiphonifera, G. pseudobesa, G. radians, G. siphonifera, G. sp.,


Citation: Globigerinella calida (Parker, 1962)
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina calida Parker, 1962

Catalog entries: Globigerina calida;
Globigerina calida praecalida;

Type images:

Short diagnosis: trochospiral coiling & radially elongate chambers

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Low trochospiral, equatorial periphery strongly lobulate

Aperture: : Umbilical-extraumbilical with a narrow lip [Aze 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Coiling direction (in extant population): mixed

Wall type: Spinose; Hispid [Aze 2011]

Test morphology: Test low trochospiral, equatorial periphery strongly lobulate; axial periphery rounded, chambers subglobular initially, ovate, to rapidly elongate in later stages; 4 to 5 rapidly enlarging chambers in the final whorl; sutures distinct, radial, depressed; surface densely perforate, finely hispid; aperture umbilical, becoming umbilical-extraumbilical , a rather low arch with a narrow lip. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Size: >150µm

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Tropical to warm subtropical. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983] Low latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

In modern oceans an abundant, temperate water, species [SCOR WG138]

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light ∂13C and relatively heavy ∂18O Cited sources (Aze et al. 2011 appendix S3): this study

Phylogenetic relations: Ge. calida differs from Globigerina (Gg.) bulloides by its ovate to radially elongate chambers and umbilical-extraumbilical aperture and from Ge. aequilateralis by its less involute test, lower spire, and more lobulate outline. Loose coiling of the test and well-separated chambers in the final whorl suggest a relationship with Ge. adamsi, which differs in exhibiting digitate chambers.
Ge. calida appears to have evolved from Ge. aequilateralis during the Early Pliocene. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Molecular Genotypes (data from PFR2 database, June 2017. References: Ujiié & Lipps 2009; Ujiié et al. 2012; Weiner et al. 2015) .

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinella siphonifera - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, fig. 26.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): in upper part of PT1b subzone (64% up, 0.2Ma, in Ionian stage). Data source: Wade et al. (2011), additional event; position within zone determined by linear interpolation from data in table 1 of Wade et al. (2011).

Plot of occurrence data:


Aze, T.; Ezard, T.H.G.; Purvis, A.; Coxall, H.K.; Stewart, D.R.M.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N.P., (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews, 86: 900-927.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.

Parker, F.L., (1962). Planktonic foraminiferal species in Pacific sediments. Micropaleontology, 8(2): 219-254.

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J.H., (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. J. Foraminifer. Res., 39: 145–154.

Ujiié, Y.; Asami, T.; de Garidel-Thoron, T.; Liu, H.; Ishitani, Y. & de Vargas, C., (2012). Longitudinal differentiation among pelagic populations in a planktic foraminifer. Ecol. Evol., 2: 1725–37.

Wade, B.S.; Pearson, P.N.; Berggren, W.A. & Pälike, H., (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews, 104: 111-142.

Weiner, A.K.M.; Weinkauf, M.F.G.; Kurasawa, A.; Darling, K.F. & Kucera, M., (2015). Genetic and morphometric evidence for parallel evolution of the Globigerinella calida morphotype. Marine Micropaleontology, 114: 19-35.


Globigerinella calida compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 22-2-2018

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