Globigerinella siphonifera

Classification: pf_neogene -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinella -> Globigerinella siphonifera
Sister taxa: G. adamsi, G. calida, G. praesiphonifera, G. pseudobesa, G. radians, G. siphonifera, G. sp.,


Citation: Globigerinella siphonifera (d'Orbigny, 1839)
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina siphonifera d'Orbigny, 1839
Synonyms: Globigerina aequilateralis Brady 1879 = Globigerinella aequilateralis (Brady 1879) = Hastigerina aequilateralis (Brady 1879) [according to SCOR-WG138]
Taxonomic discussion:
There has been variable use of the names G. aequilateralis and G. siphonifera. For example Kennett & Srinivasan (1983) state that "Banner and Blow (1960) considered Ge. aequilateralis (Brady) as a junior synonym of Ge. siphonifera (d'Orbigny), In the present work, we retain the name aequilateralis for the reasons stated by Todd (1963) and Saito et al. (1976)."
Here we follow Aze et al. 2011 and SCOR-WG138 in using G.. siphonifera

Catalog entries: Globigerina aequilateralis; Globigerina aequilateralis involuta; Globigerina siphonifera;

Type images:

Short diagnosis: Near planispiral coiling & spherical chambers

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Initially trochospiral becoming planispiral, evolute

Aperture: : Interiomarginal wide equatorial arch without rim or lip [Aze 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Coiling direction (in extant population): mixed

Wall type: Spinose; Hispid [Aze 2011]

Test morphology: Test low trochospiral in the early stage , nearly planispiral in the adult, evolute; equatorial periphery distinctly lobulate; axial periphery broadly rounded; chambers globular to subglobular, 5 to 6 rapidly enlarging chambers in the final whorl; sutures radial, depressed; surface finely hispid and densely perforate , spinose; spines simple rounded, which become triradiate with growth; surface with uniformly distributed circular pores , interpore area almost smooth; aperture in the adult interiomarginal, wide equatorial arch without a lip or rim. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983 - as G. aequiateralis]

Size: >250µm

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Tropical to temperate.

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light ∂13C and relatively heavy ∂18O Cited sources (Aze et al. 2011 appendix S3): Vergnaud-Grazzini (1976)

Phylogenetic relations: Juvenile forms of Ge. aequilateralis (with a distinct trochospiral test) resemble Globigerinella praesiphonifera. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Molecular Genotypes (data from PFR2 database, June 2017, References: Darling et al. 1997; Darling & Wade 2008; de Vargas et al. 2002; Ujiié & Lipps 2009; Ujiié et al. 2012; Seears et al. 2012; Weiner et al. 2014; Weiner et al. 2015) 

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinella praesiphonifera - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, fig. 26.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within N12 zone (11.79-13.41Ma, base in Serravallian stage). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983 (recorded as G. aequilateralis)

Plot of occurrence data:


Aze, T.; Ezard, T.H.G.; Purvis, A.; Coxall, H.K.; Stewart, D.R.M.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N.P., (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews, 86: 900-927.

Banner, F.T. & Blow, W.H., (1960). Some primary types of species belonging to the superfamily Globigerinaceae. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 11: 1-41.

Brady, H.B., (1879). Notes on some of the reticularian Rhizopoda of the "Challenger" expedition. I.- On new or little known arenaceous types. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 19: 20-63.

d'Orbigny, A., (1839). Foraminiferes. In: de la Sagra, R. (Editor), Histoire physique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba.A. Bertrand, Paris, France, pp. 224.

Darling, K.F. & Wade, C.M., (2008). The genetic diversity of planktic foraminifera and the global distribution of ribosomal RNA genotypes. Mar. Micropaleontol., 67: 216–238.

Darling, K.F.; Wade, C.M.; Kroon, D. & Brown, A.J.L., (1997). Planktic foraminiferal molecular evolution and their polyphyletic origins from benthic taxa. Mar. Micropaleontol., 30: 251–266.

de Vargas, C.; Bonzon, M.; Rees, N.W.; Pawlowski, J. & Zaninetti, L., (2002). A molecular approach to biodiversity and biogeography in the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinella siphonifera (d’Orbigny). Mar. Micropaleontol., 45: 101–116.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.

Saito, T.; Thompson, P.R. & Breger, D., (1976). Skeletal ultra-microstructure of some elongate-chambered planktonic foraminifera and related species. Progress in Micropaleontology, Special Publication. Micropaleontology Press, The American Museum of Natural History, New York, 278-304 pp.

Seears, H.A.; Darling, K.F. & Wade, C.M., (2012). Ecological partitioning and diversity in tropical planktonic foraminifera. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12(54): 1-15.

Todd 1963 [sorry, not in our bibliography yet]

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J.H., (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. J. Foraminifer. Res., 39: 145–154.

Ujiié, Y.; Asami, T.; de Garidel-Thoron, T.; Liu, H.; Ishitani, Y. & de Vargas, C., (2012). Longitudinal differentiation among pelagic populations in a planktic foraminifer. Ecol. Evol., 2: 1725–37.

Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., (1976). Non-equilibrium isotopic compositions of shells of planktonic foraminifera in the Mediterranean Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 20: 263-276.

Weiner, A.K.M.; Weinkauf, M.F.G.; Kurasawa, A.; Darling, K.F.; Kucera, M. & Grimm, G.W., (2014). Phylogeography of the tropical planktonic foraminifera lineage Globigerinella reveals isolation inconsistent with passive dispersal by ocean currents. PLoS One, 9: e92148.

Weiner, A.K.M.; Weinkauf, M.F.G.; Kurasawa, A.; Darling, K.F. & Kucera, M., (2015). Genetic and morphometric evidence for parallel evolution of the Globigerinella calida morphotype. Marine Micropaleontology, 114: 19-35.


Globigerinella siphonifera compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 19-2-2018

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