Globigerinoides parawoodi

Classification: pf_neogene -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides -> Globigerinoides parawoodi
Sister taxa: G. altiaperturus, G. conglobatus, G. extremus, G. obliquus, G. elongatus, G. ruber, G. mitra, G. seigliei, G. subquadratus, G. diminutus, G. bulloideus, G. parawoodi, G. sp.,

Distinguishing features: Like G. altiapertura but smaller with smaller primary aperture, and single small supplementary aperture


Citation: Globigerinoides parawoodi Keller 1981
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerinoides parawoodi

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides parawoodi;

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Like G. altiapertura but smaller with smaller primary aperture, and single small supplementary aperture

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Low trochospiral, chambers spherical to ovate

Aperture: : Primary aperture interiomarginal umbilical medium-sized arch. Supplementary sutural apertures on spiral side [Aze 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Wall type: Spinose; Cancellate [Aze 2011]

Test morphology: Test low trochospire, chambers spherical to ovate, four in the final whorl; distinct radial sutures on both umbilical and spiral sides, depressed, surface coarsely pitted as in Globigerina (Zeaglobigerina) woodi; primary aperture a medium-sized arch, interiomarginal, umbilical, with a distinct rim-like margin; one small supplementary aperture at the suture junction between the ultimate and penultimate chambers. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Temperate [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983] Middle latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

[SCOR WG138]

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy ∂13C and relatively light ∂18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Keller (1985)

Phylogenetic relations:

Gs. parawoodi is similar to Globigerina woodi in all aspects except for the development of a small supplementary aperture. This species differs from Gs. altiapertura by its small, single supplementary aperture, generally smaller primary aperture, and smaller test size. Gs. bollii is distinguished from Gs. parawoodi by its heavily encrusted and more compact test and by possessing more than one supplementary aperture. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): within N7 zone (16.38-17.54Ma, top in Burdigalian stage). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983
First occurrence (base): within N4b zone (22.20-23.50Ma, base in Chattian stage). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.70


Aze, T.; Ezard, T.H.G.; Purvis, A.; Coxall, H.K.; Stewart, D.R.M.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N.P., (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews, 86: 900-927.

Keller, G., (1981). Origin and evolution of the genus Globigerinoides in the Early Miocene of the northwestern Pacific, DSDP Site 292. Micropaleontology, 27(3): 293-304.

Keller, G., (1985). Depth stratification of planktonic foraminifers in the Miocene Ocean. In: Kennett, J.P. (Editor), The Miocene Ocean: Paleoceanography and Biogeography. GSA Memoir 163 The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 1-337.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.

Norris, R.D., (1998). Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy: Eastern Equatorial Atlantic. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 159: 445-479.


Globigerinoides parawoodi compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 18-3-2018

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