Globigerinoides subquadratus

Classification: pf_neogene -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides -> Globigerinoides subquadratus
Sister taxa: G. altiaperturus, G. bulloideus, G. conglobatus, G. diminutus, G. elongatus, G. extremus, G. mitra, G. obliquus, G. parawoodi, G. ruber, G. seigliei, G. subquadratus, G. tenellus, G. white, G. sp.,


Citation: Globigerinoides subquadratus Brönniman , in Todd et al. 1954
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerinoides subquadratus

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides subquadrata;

Type images:

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Trochospiral, outline subquadrate, chambers spherical to subspherical

Aperture: : Primary aperture interiomarginal umbilicalwide arch with distinct rim. Supplementary sutural apertures on spiral side [Aze 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Wall type: Spinose; Cancellate [Aze 2011]

Test morphology: Test subquadrate, trochospiral, chambers spherical to subspherical, three in the last whorl, increasing moderately in size as added; sutures on spiral side slightly curved, depressed, on umbilical side radial and depressed; surface distinctly perforate, with spine bases visible on the interpore ridges; primary aperture interiomarginal, umbilical with a high arch bordered by a distinct rim; two prominent supplementary apertures over sutures of earlier chambers. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Cool subtropical to tropical. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy ∂13C and relatively light ∂18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Keller (1985)

Phylogenetic relations: Gs. subquadratus differs from Gs. ruber in being subquadrate and in having four chambers in the penultimate whorl instead of three to three and a half. This species evolved from Globigerina (Zeaglobigerina) brazieri in the Early Miocene warm subtropical in South Pacific by developing sutural supplementary apertures (Srinivasan and Kennett, 1981). [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): near base of M14 [Atl.] zone (9% up, 6.1Ma, in Messinian stage). Data source: Wade et al. (2011), additional event; position within zone determined by linear interpolation from data in table 1 of Wade et al. (2011).
First occurrence (base): within N4b zone (22.20-23.50Ma, base in Chattian stage). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivisan 1983, p.74


Aze, T.; Ezard, T.H.G.; Purvis, A.; Coxall, H.K.; Stewart, D.R.M.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N.P., (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews, 86: 900-927.

Keller, G., (1985). Depth stratification of planktonic foraminifers in the Miocene Ocean. In: Kennett, J.P. (Editor), The Miocene Ocean: Paleoceanography and Biogeography. GSA Memoir The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 1-337.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.

Srinivasan, M.S. & Kennett, J.P., (1981). Neogene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and evolution: equatorial to subantarctic, south Pacific. Marine Micropaleontology, 6: 499-533.

Todd, R.; Cloud, P.E.; Low, D. & Schmidt, R.G., (1954). Probable occurrence of Oligocene in Saipan. American Journal of Science, 252: 673-682.


Globigerinoides subquadratus compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 20-1-2018

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