Globorotalia menardii

Classification: pf_neogene -> Globorotalidae -> Globorotalia -> menardii lineage -> Globorotalia menardii
Sister taxa: G. pertenuis, G. exilis, G. multicamerata, G. miocenica, G. pseudomiocenica, G. limbata, G. menardii, G. praemenardii, G. archeomenardii,


Citation: Globorotalia menardii (Parker, Jones & Brady, 1865 after d'Orbigny, 1826 nomen nudum)
Rank: species
Basionym: Rotalia menardii

Catalog entries: Globorotalia menardii gibberula; Globorotalia menardii neoflexuosa; Pulvinulina menardii fimbriata;
Rotalia menardii;
Rotalina cultrata;

Type images:

Short diagnosis: Keel & thin, laterally compressed shell

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Lenticular, low trochospiral, prominent keel and densely perforate surface

Aperture: : Interiomarginal umbilical-extraumbilical low-arched slit with thick lip [Aze 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Coiling direction (in extant population): sinistral

Wall type: Non-spinose; Smooth [Aze 2011]

Test morphology: Test large, low trochospiral, compressed, equatorial periphery lobulate, axial periphery acute with a prominent keel; 5 to 6 wedge-shaped chambers in the final whorl, increasing regularly in size as added; sutures on spiral side strongly curved, raised; on umbilical side radial to slightly curved, depressed: surface smooth, densely perforate with circular pores (Pl. 28, Fig. 2); umbilicus wide, shallow, aperture interiomarginal, umbilical-extraumbilical, a low arch bordered by a thick lip. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Size: >250µm

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Tropical to warm subtropical. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983] Low latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

In modern oceans an abundant, warm water, species [SCOR WG138]

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light ∂13C and relatively heavy ∂18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Shackleton & Vincent (1978); Pearson & Shackleton (1995); D. R. M. Stewart unpublished data

Phylogenetic relations: The controversy over the nomenclatural priority of Gr. menardii versus Gr. cultrata was discussed at length by Banner and Blow (1960a), Parker (1962), and Stainforth et al. (1975). We support the proposal of Stainforth et al. (1975) that the name menardii be retained for the Miocene and younger menardi-form species, so widely recognized.
Gr. (M.) menardii evolved from Gr. (M.) praemenardii by an increase in test size and by the gradual development of raised spiral sutures and a more massive keel.
Gr. (M.) menardii in the Recent areas of upwelling in the Indian Ocean and eastern tropical Pacific develops an acute angle of the final chamber, giving rise to Gr. (M) menardii neoflexuosa Srinivasan, Kennett, and Bé, and an extreme flexuose form
Gr. (M) menardii gibberula Bé. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Molecular Genotypes recognised (data from PFR2 database, June 2017), one genotype only from 31 sequences. References:  André et al. 2014; Darling et al. 1997; Ujiié & Lipps 2009; Seears et al. 2012;

Most likely ancestor: Globorotalia praemenardii - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, fig. 14;Stewart 2003 fig. 6.10; Aze et al. 2011, appendix 5.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (SCOR WG138)
First occurrence (base): within N12 zone (11.79-13.41Ma, base in Serravallian stage). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivisan 1983, p.124


André, A. & others, (2014). SSU rDNA Divergence in Planktonic Foraminifera: Molecular Taxonomy and Biogeographic Implications. PLoS One, 9: e104641.

Aze, T.; Ezard, T.H.G.; Purvis, A.; Coxall, H.K.; Stewart, D.R.M.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N.P., (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews, 86: 900-927.

Banner, F.T. & Blow, W.H., (1960). Some primary types of species belonging to the superfamily Globigerinaceae. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 11: 1-41.

Brady, H.B., (1884). Report on the Foraminifera dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. Rep. Sci. Results H.M.S. Challenger 1873-6, 9 (Zoology): 1-814.

d'Orbigny, A., (1826). Tableau methodique de la Classe de Cephalopodes. Annals des Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 7: 245-314.

Darling, K.F.; Wade, C.M.; Kroon, D. & Brown, A.J.L., (1997). Planktic foraminiferal molecular evolution and their polyphyletic origins from benthic taxa. Marine Micropaleontology, 30: 251–266.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.

Parker, F.L., (1962). Planktonic foraminiferal species in Pacific sediments. Micropaleontology, 8(2): 219-254.

Parker, W.K.; Jones, T.R. & Brady, H.B., (1865). On the nomenclature of the foraminifera. X cont: The Species enumerated by d'Orbigny in the 'Annales des Sciences Naturelles', vol. 7, 1826 (The Species illustrated by Models. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 3(16): 15-41.

Pearson, P.N. & Shackleton, N.J., (1995). Neogene multispecies planktonic foraminifer stable isotope record, Site 871, Limalok Guyot. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 144. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, 401-410 pp.

Seears, H.A.; Darling, K.F. & Wade, C.M., (2012). Ecological partitioning and diversity in tropical planktonic foraminifera. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 12(54): 1-15.

Shackleton, N.J. & Vincent, E., (1978). Oxygen and carbon isotope studies in Recent Foraminifera from the southeast Indian Ocean. Marine Micropaleontology, 3: 1-13.

Stainforth, R.M.; Lamb, J.L.; Luterbacher, H.; Beard, J.H. & Jeffords, R.M., (1975). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal zonation and characteristics of index forms. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, 62: 1-425.

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J.H., (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. J. Foraminifer. Res., 39: 145–154.


Globorotalia menardii compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 22-2-2018

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