Paragloborotalia griffinoides

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Paragloborotalia -> Paragloborotalia griffinoides
Sister taxa: P. acrostoma, P. incognita, P. pseudocontinuosa, P. semivera, P. kugleri, P. pseudokugleri, P. mayeri, P. siakensis, P. birnageae, P. continuosa, P. opima, P. nana, P. griffinoides, P. sp.,


Citation: Paragloborotalia griffinoides Olsson & Pearson, in Olsson et al. 2006
Rank: Species
Basionym: Paragloborotalia griffinoides
Taxonomic discussion: When Blow (1979) described Globorotalia (Turborotalia) griffinae ( =Parasubbotina griffinae) he selected the holotype and some paratypes from the same sample (KANE 9 Core 42, 200 cm) from which he also illustrated Hastigerina? bolivariana (= Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana). His case for regarding griffinae as ancestral to bolivariana is clear from the SEM illustrations of the two species (his pl. 150, figs. 1-9) as they both share a sacculifer-type reticulate wall texture. The illustration of paratypes from
other levels in KANE 9 Core 42 (his pl. 157, fig. 7, from 95 cm; pl. 162, figs. 8, 9, from 42 cm; pl. 165, figs. 1-3, from 15 cm), however, clearly differ from the holotype and paratypes of the species illustrated from the type level of the holotype. These paratypes differ in having a more coarsely cancellate, non-reticulate wall texture and a thickened, continuous apertural lip. The test is more compact and subquadrate in shape, in contrast to P. griffinae. These morphotypes are the basis for the new species, Paragloborotalia griffinoides. Toumarkine and Luterbacher (1985) and Warraich and Ogasawara (2001) also included morphotypes like these in griffinae (which were placed by them in Turborotalia, fig. 27:19-23 and fig. 5: 13, 14, 18, respectively). P. griffinoides is a common and widespread form in the Eocene and its stratigraphic range is from lower to upper Eocene. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Paragloborotalia griffinoides

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Small, very low trochospiral, compact, subquadrate test. Aperture with a thickened continuous lip. Wall coarsely cancellate.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters: P. griffinoides is distinguished by its small, very low trochospiral, compact, subquadrate test, coarsely cancellate wall, and aperture with a thickened continuous lip. Parasubbotina varianta is more loosely coiled and its chambers are less embracing than in P. griffinoides, leading to a more lobulate test. In P. griffinoides, the apertural lip is more uniform and constant in thickness than in P. varianta and other species of Parasubbotina. Parasubbotina griffinae differs from Paragloborotalia griffinoides in its generally larger test size, greater number of chambers in the ultimate whorl, and high porosity, reticulate wall. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Wall type: Normal perforate, coarsely cancellate, sacculifer-type, spinose

Test morphology: Test very low trochospiral, globular, subquadrate in outline; chambers globular, much inflated, embracing; in spiral view 4, occasionally 4½ globular, embracing chambers in ultimate whorl, increasing rapidly in size; sutures slightly depressed, straight; last 4 chambers make up about three-quarters of the test, ultimate chamber may be slightly reduced in size; in umbilical view 4, occasionally 4½ globular, embracing chambers, increasing rapidly in size, sutures slightly depressed, straight; umbilicus very small opening, sometimes closed off by surrounding chambers; aperture umbilical-extraumbilical, bordered by a narrow, often thickened, continuous, lip; ultimate chamber may be slightly reduced in size; in edge view chambers globular, periphery rounded, aperture a high arch extending midway onto the peripheral edge, bordered by a thickened lip.

Character matrix

test outline:Subquadratechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thick lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-4.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: P. griffinoides seems to have preferred cold-water high productivity environments and is generally absent from deep-sea oligotrophic settings. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: High latitudes, high productivity/upwelling; based on Olsson et al. (2006c)

Isotope paleobiology: Recorded (as P. wilsoni) by Pearson and others (2001) with consistently positive ∂18O and strongly depleted ∂13C indicating a deep planktonic habitat. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light δ13C and very heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Pearson et al. (2001a)

Phylogenetic relations: The genus Paragloborotalia arose through the development of P. griffinoides from Parasubbotina varianta in Zone P5. The close relationship of P. griffinoides and P. varianta is clearly seen in specimens from Zone E1 in the Bass River Borehole, New Jersey (Pls. 5.7 and 5.13). The two species are linked by transitional morphotypes that show a range of test morphology from the inflated, compact, subquadrate test of P. griffinoides to the more loosely coiled, less inflated test of P. varianta. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Parasubbotina varianta - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al 2006 f5.1.
Likely descendants: Paragloborotalia nana;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zone E1 to Zone E16. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within E16 zone (33.90-34.68Ma, top in Priabonian stage). Data source: Olsson et al 2006
First occurrence (base): within E1 zone (55.81-55.96Ma, base in Ypresian stage). Data source: Olsson et al 2006

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 5, p. 91


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Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N. & Huber, B. T. (2006c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In, Pearson, P. N. , Olsson, R. K. , Hemleben, C. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 5): 67-110. gs :: ::

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Poore, R. Z. & Bybell, L. M. (1988). Eocene to Miocene biostratigraphy of New Jersey Core ACGS #4: Implications for regional stratigraphy. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin. 1829: 1-41. gs :: ::

Toumarkine, M. & Luterbacher, H. (1985). Paleocene and Eocene planktic foraminifera. In, Bolli, H. M. , Saunders, J. B. & Perch-Neilsen, K. (eds) Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 87-154. gs :: ::

Warraich, M. Y. & Ogasawara, K. (2001). Tethyan Paleocene-Eocene planktic foraminifera from the Rakhi Nala and Zinda Pir land sections of the Sulaiman Range, Pakistan. Science Reports of the Institute of Geosciences, University of Tsukuba, Section B = Geological Sciences. 22: 1-59. gs :: ::


Paragloborotalia griffinoides compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 7-7-2020

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