Paragloborotalia nana


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Paragloborotalia -> Paragloborotalia nana
Sister taxa: P. acrostoma, P. incognita, P. pseudocontinuosa, P. semivera, P. kugleri, P. pseudokugleri, P. mayeri, P. siakensis, P. birnageae, P. continuosa, P. opima, P. nana, P. griffinoides, P. sp.,

Taxonomy

Citation: Paragloborotalia nana (Bolli 1957)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globorotalia opima nana
Synonyms: [Leckie et al. 2018]
Taxonomic discussion:

Bolli and Saunders (1985) originally proposed the use of size as the principle criterion to distinguish nana and opima with specimens nana. Spezzaferri (1994) rejected this size criterion because of the possible implication that nana was the juvenile and opima the adult of the same species. However, large-sized, 4-5 chambered Paragloborotalia have a short, distinct range in the mid- to early late Oligocene, while the smaller nana s.s. has a much longer range. In a quantitative study of Paragloborotalia size changes in the equatorial Pacific, Wade and others (2007, 2016) concluded that Bolli’s size criteria for distinguishing the opima-nana plexus are robust. They documented a sharp decline in the sizes of 4 and 5 chambered Paragloborotalia within Chron C9n marking the highest occurrence of P. opima and the O5/O6 zonal boundary. We continue to favor the use of size as a primary criterion to distinguish P. nana from P. opima because the smaller nana co-occurs with its larger descendant opima in the mid Oligocene, but then continues to range beyond the highest occurrence of opima into the early Miocene (e.g., Leckie and others, 1993; Morgans and others, 2002; Wade and others, 2007, 2016). [Leckie et al. 2018]

Catalog entries: Globorotalia opima nana

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Test small, compact, quadrangular, usually 4 chambers in the final whorl. Umbilicus very narrow, sutures radial. Aperture with prominent lip, which often obscures the primary aperture.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.

Description


Diagnostic characters:

Paragloborotalia nana is distinguished from P. opima on size alone, with all specimens smaller than 0.32 mm attributed to P. nana. Previous authors have suggested that P. nana is more quadrate than P. opima, with a lower rate of chamber expansion. However, Wade and others (2016) conducted morphometric analyses on specimens of P. opima and P. nana from the equatorial Pacific Ocean and were unable to distinguish the forms on outline (quadrateness), or number of chambers, and concluded that size was the only effective means to separate the two forms.

Paragloborotalia nana differs from P. siakensis in typically having only 4 chambers in the final whorl, compared with 5 or 6 in P. siakensis, and in being distinctly less lobulate and less ovate in equatorial profile. As stated by Blow (1959), P. continuosa can be distinguished from P. nana by a more ovate outline and higher arched aperture. In addition, P. continuosa can attain sizes greater than P. nana. Paragloborotalia pseudocontinuosa is more lobulate and has a large, nearly circular, umbilical-extraumbilical aperture rimmed by the lip. It can be distinguished from Parasubbotina varianta by its lower rate of chamber expansion, and lower arched aperture, particularly in edge view. Paragloborotalia nana differs from bulla-less forms of Globorotaloides suteri (see Chapter 4, Fig. 4.10, this volume) by the less cancellate wall, more extraumbilical position of the aperture, and distinctive lip. [Leckie et al. 2018]


Wall type: Normal perforate, coarsely cancellate, probably sparsely spinose in life, heavy gametogenetic calcification is often present. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Test morphology: Test small to medium in size; very low trochospiral, quadrate to slightly lobulate in equatorial outline, chambers spherical to subspherical, inflated, embracing; typically 4-4½, occasionally 5 chambers in ultimate whorl, increasing slowly in size; in spiral view chambers moderately inflated, spherical to subspherical, arranged in 2 whorls, sutures slightly depressed, radial; in umbilical view chambers moderately inflated, sutures slightly depressed, radial, forming a cross, umbilicus very narrow, moderately deep, sometimes closed off by surrounding chambers, ultimate chamber may be slightly reduced in size; aperture umbilical-extraumbilical, low arch, bordered by a narrow, often thickened, continuous lip; in edge view chambers globular, spiral side flat, periphery broadly rounded (modified after Olsson and others, 2006, and Wade and others, 2016). [Leckie et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.30 mm (original measurement), 0.319 mm (re-measured this study); maximum thickness 0.217 mm (this study). All specimens restricted to <0.32 mm in size as per Bolli and Saunders (1985) and Wade and others (2016). [Leckie et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Quadratechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thick lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-4.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology


Geographic distribution: Global in low and mid-latitudes. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: Several studies (e.g., Wade and others, 2007; Pearson and Wade, 2009; Matsui and others, 2016) indicate that P. nana calcified in the upper thermocline. However, some records have indicated a more positive oxygen isotope signature suggesting a deeper thermocline habitat (e.g., Douglas and Savin, 1978; Poore and Matthews, 1984) while Boersma and Shackleton (1978) suggested a mixed-layer habitat. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: According to Olsson and others (2006), P. nana evolved from P. griffinoides in the middle Eocene by developing more inflated, embracing chambers, with a slower rate of chamber size increase in the ultimate whorl. We conclude here that P. nana was ancestral to P. opima, P. pseudocontinuosa, P. siakensis, P. pseudokugleri, P. continuosa, and P. birnageae. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Paragloborotalia griffinoides - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al 2006 f5.1.
Likely descendants: Paragloborotalia birnageae; Paragloborotalia continuosa; Paragloborotalia opima; Paragloborotalia pseudocontinuosa; Paragloborotalia pseudokugleri; Paragloborotalia siakensis;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zone E13 to Zone M2. According to Blow (1979) and Toumarkine and Luterbacher (1985), P. nana first appeared in upper Eocene Zone E13. Forms transitional with its proposed ancestor, P. griffinoides, have been reported as low as Zone E7 in Tanzania (Olsson and others, 2006). Paragloborotalia nana persisted into the lower Miocene Zone N4 (Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983). Jenkins (1978) reports a last occurrence of P. nana in the lower Miocene G. woodi Zone in the southeast Atlantic Ocean (DSDP Site 362). A number of oceanic sites show highest occurrences within the early Miocene (Chaisson and Leckie, 1993; Pearson and Chaisson, 1997; Spezzaferri, 1998). [Leckie et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within M2 zone (19.30-21.12Ma, top in Burdigalian stage). Data source: Leckie et al. 2018
First occurrence (base): within E13 zone (37.99-39.97Ma, base in Bartonian stage). Data source: Leckie et al. 2018 (but with possible early forms down to E7)

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Leckie et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.5 p.149; Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 5, p. 95

References:

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Paragloborotalia nana compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 13-11-2019

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