Parasubbotina pseudobulloides

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Parasubbotina -> Parasubbotina pseudobulloides
Sister taxa: P. griffinae, P. eoclava, P. hagni, P. prebetica, P. inaequispira, P. pseudowilsoni, P. variospira, P. varianta, P. pseudobulloides, P. aff. pseudobulloides, P. sp.,


Citation: Parasubbotina pseudobulloides (Plummer 1927)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina pseudobulloides
Synonyms: Additional likely synonyms, not discussed in Ollson et al. 1995 [my interpretation - JRY 2019]
Taxonomic discussion: The demonstration that P. pseudobulloides has a cancellate, spinose wall texture (Olsson et al., 1992) and that it is a member of a relatively minor offshoot of the early eoglobigerinid radiation, has given pause to long-held notions about early Paleocene planktonic foraminiferal phylogenies (see also Pearson, 1993). This is because it has been commonly accepted for nearly 40 years that P. pseudobulloides was the ancestor of the post-Danian muricate morozovellid radiation (Bolli, 1957a; Blow, 1979). Parasubbotina pseudobulloides is a member of a lineage that includes P. varianta and apparently P. variospira.
The identification of P. pseudobulloides must be made with care because of the general, superficial similarity with Praemurica pseudoinconstans (see also Blow, 1979). The fundamental difference in wall texture between Parasubbotina and Praemurica may not be evident in poorly preserved specimens. [Olsson et al. 1999]

Catalog entries: Globigerina pseudobulloides, Globigerina moskvini, Globorotalia danica [no catalog entry yet]

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Test medium-sized (>250µm) with 5 chambers in final whorl. Chambers inflated, globular, slightly ovoid; increasing rapidly in size. Aperture interiomarginal, umbilical to extraumbilical, a high rounded arch with a narrow lip. Umbilicus narrow; deep and open to the previous chambers. Wall cancellate spinose, with numerous spine holes

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters: Test very low trochospiral with 10-12 chambers, and with 5 chambers in the ultimate whorl. The inflated, globular chambers which are slightly ovoid in shape increase rapidly in size. The aperture is interiomarginal, umbilical to extraumbilical, a high rounded arch which is bordered by a narrow lip. The umbilicus is narrow, deep and open to the previous chambers. The cancellate spinose wall is weakly developed in the early forms of this species but becomes stronger in later forms. Spine holes are numerous and located at the juncture of and along the cancellate ridges. They may be obscured by gametogenetic and/or diagenetic calcification. The overall size of the test is generally greater than 250 um. [Olsson et al. 1999]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Concavo-convexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:5.0-6.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Worldwide in low to high latitudes (Figure 10). [Olsson et al. 1999]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Cosmopolitan; based on Olsson et al. (1999)

Isotope paleobiology: Parasubbotina pseudobulloides has a positive ∂18O and negative ∂13C similar to Subbotina, Eoglobigerina, and Globanomalina. Both ∂18O and ∂13C display little size-related variability (D'Hondt and Zachos, 1993; Berggren and Norris, 1997). [Olsson et al. 1999]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light δ13C and very heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): D'hondt & Zachos (1993); Berggren & Norris (1997)

Phylogenetic relations: This species evolved from 4_-5- chambered, weakly cancellate, spinose morphotypes identified as Parasubbotina sp. aff. pseudobulloides (Olsson et al., 1992, pi. 4: figs. 1-4) that occur at the top of Zone P0 and in Zone Pa. They are not the same as the 5-6-chambered forms identified as G. (T) aff. pseudobulloides by Blow (1979), which he regarded as having a phylogenetic relationship with pseudoinconstans. [Olsson et al. 1999]

Most likely ancestor: Parasubbotina aff. pseudobulloides - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 1999 f.5.
Likely descendants: Parasubbotina varianta;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Uppermost Zone Pa to Zone P3a; ?P3b. [Olsson et al. 1999]
Last occurrence (top): within P3 zone (60.73-62.29Ma, top in Selandian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 1999
First occurrence (base): within Pa zone (65.72-66.00Ma, base in Danian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 1999

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 1999 - Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic Foraminifera, p. 24


Bang, I. (1969). Planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy of the type Danian. In, Brönnimann, P. & Renz, H. H. (eds) Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva, 1967. E.J. Brill, Leiden 58-65. gs

Berggren, W. A. (1992). Paleogene planktonic foraminifer magnetobiostratigraphy of the southern Kerguelen Plateau (sites 747-749). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 551-568. gs

Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

Bolli, H. M. & Cita, M. B. (1960). Globigerine e Globorotalie del Paleocene di Paderno d'Adda (Italia). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia. LXVI(3): 1-42. gs

Bolli, H. M. (1957d). The genera Globigerina and Globorotalia in the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Lizard Springs Formation of Trinidad. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr. , Tappan, H. , Beckmann, J. P. , Bolli, H. M. , Montanaro Gallitelli, E. & Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 61-82. gs

Gohrbandt, K. (1963). Zur Gliederung des Palaeogen im Helvetikum nordlich Salzburg nach planktonischen Foraminiferen. Mitt Geol Ges, Wien. 56(1): 63-. gs

Hillebrandt, A. , von (1962). Das Paleozän und seine Foraminiferenfauna im Becken von Reichenhall und Salzburg. Abhandlungen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Neue Folge. 108: 1-182. gs

Loeblich, A. R. & Tappan, H. (1957b). Planktonic foraminifera of Paleocene and early Eocene Age from the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr. , Tappan, H. , Beckmann, J. P. , Bolli, H. M. , Montanaro Gallitelli, E. & Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 173-198. gs

Olsson, R. K. (1960). Foraminifera of late Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary age in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Journal of Paleontology. 34(1): 1-58. gs

Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Berggren, W. A. & Liu, C. (1992). Wall Texture Classification of planktonic foraminifera genera in the Lower Danian. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 22(3): 195-213. gs

Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Berggren, W. A. & Huber, B. T. (1999). Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 1-252. gs

Plummer, H. J. (1927). Foraminifera of the Midway Formation in Texas. University of Texas Bulletin. 2644: 1-206. gs

Postuma, J. A. (1971). Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Elsevier for Shell Group, The Hague. 1-406. gs

Shutskaya, E. K. (1953). Raschlenenie kubanskogo i elburganskogo gorizontov Severnogo Kavkaza po globigerinam:. Byulletin Moskovskogo Obschestva Ispytateley Prirody, Otdel Geologicheskiy. 28: 71-79. gs

Subbotina, N. N. (1950). Mikrofauna i stratigrafiya Elburganskogo Gorozonta Goriathego Klyitcha [Microfauna and Stratigraphy of the Elburgan Horizon and the Goryatchy Klijutch Horizon]. In, unknown (ed.) Mikrofauna of the  USSR, 4. Trudy Vsesoyuznego Neftyanogo Nauchno-Issledovatel 'skogo Geologo-Razvedochnogo Instituta (VNIGRI). 51: 5-112. gs

Troelsen, J. C. (1957). Some planktonic Foraminifera of the type Danian and their stratigraphic importance. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr. , Tappan, H. , Beckmann, J. P. , Bolli, H. M. , Montanaro Gallitelli & E. Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 125-132. gs


Parasubbotina pseudobulloides compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 31-3-2020

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