Subbotina linaperta

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Subbotina -> Subbotina linaperta
Sister taxa: S. projecta, S. tecta, S. jacksonensis, S. corpulenta, S. eocaena, S. gortanii, S. crociapertura, S. yeguaensis, S. senni, S. roesnaesensis, S. utilisindex, S. angiporoides, S. minima, S. linaperta, S. patagonica, S. cancellata, S. hornibrooki, S. velascoensis, S. triloculinoides, S. triangularis, S. trivialis, S. sp.,


Citation: Subbotina linaperta (Finlay 1939)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina linaperta
Taxonomic discussion: The morphologic variability of forms included in this taxon is exemplified by comparison of a paratype and topotype specimen (Pl.6.14, Figs. 1-4), which show varying degrees of equatorial flattening of the final whorl chambers and variable rates of chamber size increase in the final whorl. Some authors (e.g., Huber, 1991; Berggren, 1992) distinguish sensu stricto forms in which the final chamber exhibits flattening. Morphologic intergradation with the ancestral and descendent forms has been noted by several authors (e.g., Blow, 1979:1278; Stainforth and others, 1975:202). Jenkins (1971) noted that Subbotina linaperta in New Zealand was limited to the middle to upper Eocene. The species was found only in the middle Eocene by Krasheninnikov and Basov (1983) at DSDP Site 512, Falkland Plateau, South Atlantic Ocean. Stott and Kennett (1990) established that the last occurrence of S. linaperta was at the middle/upper Eocene boundary at Leg 113 drill sites in the Weddell Sea, Antarctic Ocean. Huber (1991) also recorded S. linaperta s.s. only in the middle Eocene at Hole 738A, Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean, and Berggren (1992) noted that the species disappeared at the middle/upper Eocene boundary at ODP Holes 748B and 749B on the southern Kerguelen Plateau. Thus, it appears, as Krasheninnikov and Basov surmised that climatic factors prevented S. linaperta from occupying high southern latitude waters in the late Eocene. In the low latitudes of the southern hemisphere Belford (1984) recorded S. linaperta in the lower Eocene (Zone P8/9) in Papua, New Guinea.[Olsson et al. 2006]

The range of S. linaperta in the northern hemisphere is somewhat equivocal. Bronnimann (1952) considered S. linaperta a dominant species of the Paleocene of Trinidad. Although he referred to the peripheral flattening of chambers, the specimen he figured (his pl. 2, figs.7-9) does not show the characteristic morphology of this species and is more openingly coiled than is the case for S. linaperta. This specimen is probably S. triangularis (White), which is very common in the upper Paleocene of Trinidad. Bolli (1957) also identified S. linaperta in the upper Paleocene of Trinidad, but the specimen he illustrated (his pl. 15, figs. 15-17) does not exhibit the flattened chambers typical of S. linaperta. Bolli’s hypotype, here illustrated for the first in SEM (Plate 6.15, Figs. 12, 16), shows morphological characteristics of S. patagonica, which is interpreted as the ancestral species of S. linaperta.[Olsson et al. 2006]

Subbotina linaperta belongs to a group of coarse, symmetrically cancellate, tightly coiled subbotinids that includes S. patagonica (Todd and Kniker) and S. velascoensis (Cushman). Although S. linaperta is morphologically close to S. velascoensis, in that both possess laterally compressed or flattened chambers, the latter species goes extinct in Zone P5 (= E½) below the first occurrence of S. linaperta in Zone P7 (= E5). Subbotina patagonica ranges into the lower Eocene and is probably the ancestor of S. linaperta. Jenkins (1971) figured a topotype specimen of S. linaperta (his pl. 18, fig. 554) with a bulla-like ultimate chamber and Belford (1984) also figured such specimens. This is also a feature that is observed in S. velascoensis (see Olsson and others, 1999, pl. 29, fig. 8). Blow (1979) illustrated a number of specimens to show his view of the range of morphological variation in S. linaperta, but these specimens (his pl. 91, fig. 8; pl. 158, fig. 8; pl. 160, figs. 6-8; pl. 177, fig. 4-6; pl. 240, figs. 5, 6) are more loosely coiled forms and do not have the coarse, symmetrical cancellate wall texture of S. linaperta. The specimen from ‘Zone P7’ illustrated on his pl. 124, fig. 9, although not well preserved, is more tightly coiled and has a symmetrical wall texture, and may represent this species, although this specimen is not as coarsely cancellate as in typical S. linaperta.[Olsson et al. 2006]

In the northern hemisphere S. linaperta has been widely recorded in the middle and upper Eocene. The lowest record of the species is in Zone P7 (Snyder and Waters, 1985) and in the southern hemisphere it has been identified in Zone P8/9 by Belford (1984). It would appear that linkage between S. patagonica and S. linaperta lies in low latitude sections since in mid and high latitude sections S. linaperta does not appear until the middle Eocene. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina linaperta, Globigerina posttriloculinoides, Globigerina posttriloculinoides clinata, Subbotina oregonensis

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Test low trochospiral, globular, with 3-3⅓ chambers in final whorl. Final chamber large and compressed. Apeture highly arched, with well-developed lip. Wall texture coarsely cancellate.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters: Differs from Subbotina utilisindex and Subbotina triloculinoides by having (1) a larger and more compressed final chamber, (2) less compact coiling, (3) a more highly arched aperture and extra-umbilical position of its aperture, (4) a better developed apertural lip, (5) a more coarsely cancellate wall texture, and (6) a much larger size of the final chamber relative to the penultimate chamber; differs from Subbotina eocaena (Guembel) by the faster rate of chamber size increase, 3-3½ rather than 4 chambers in the final whorl, equatorial flattening of final whorl chambers, and shallower umbilicus; differs from Subbotina triangularis by tighter coiling of final whorl chambers; differs from Subbotina velascoensis by having a less coarsely cancellate test. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Wall type: Coarsely and symmetrically cancellate, normal perforate, spinose, sacculifer-type wall texture. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Test low trochospiral, globular, rounded in outline, chambers globular; in spiral view 3-3⅓ globular, embracing chambers in ultimate whorl, increasing rapidly in size, sutures slightly to moderately depressed, straight to slightly curved, ultimate chamber broader than high, presenting a flattened appearance; in umbilical view 3-3⅓ globular, embracing chambers, increasing rapidly in size, sutures moderately depressed, straight to slightly curved, umbilicus very small, enclosed by surrounding chambers, aperture umbilical to somewhat extraumbilical, bordered by a thin, even lip, ultimate chamber broader than high, presenting a flattened appearance; in edge view chambers globular in shape, embracing; aperture visible as a low arch, bordered by a thin, even lip, ultimate chamber broader than high, presenting a flattened appearance. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Size: Maximum diameter of neotype 0.38 mm, thickness 0.27 mm. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Circularchamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.0-3.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. Particularly common during the middle Eocene at southern, high latitudes. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Cosmopolitan; based on Olsson et al. (2006a)

Isotope paleobiology: Poore & Matthews (1984) and Pearson and others (1993) recorded stable isotope signatures that indicate that the adult S. linaperta lived near the thermocline. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light δ13C and relatively heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Poore & Matthews (1984) Pearson et al. (1993); Coxall et al. (2000)

Phylogenetic relations: Subbotina linaperta belongs to a group of tightly coiled subbotinids with a coarse, symmetrical cancellate wall texture. Species in this group include S. velascoensis, S. patagonica, S. angiporoides (Hornibrook), and S. utilisindex (Jenkins and Orr). It appears that S. linaperta is derived from S. patagonica by flattening of chambers and rotation of the aperture to a more extraumbilical position. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Similar species:

Most likely ancestor: Subbotina patagonica - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 f6.2.
Likely descendants: Subbotina minima; Subbotina utilisindex;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zone E5 to Zone E16. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within E16 zone (33.90-34.68Ma, top in Priabonian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas
First occurrence (base): within E5 zone (50.67-52.54Ma, base in Ypresian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Wade et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.10 p.321; Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 6, p. 149


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Subbotina linaperta compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 19-9-2020

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