Turborotalia cerroazulensis


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globanomalinidae -> Turborotalia -> Turborotalia cerroazulensis
Sister taxa: T. cunialensis, T. cocoaensis, T. cerroazulensis, T. pomeroli, T. frontosa, T. ampliapertura, T. increbescens, T. altispiroides, T. possagnoensis, T. sp.,

Taxonomy

Citation: Turborotalia cerroazulensis (Cole 1928)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globorotalia cerroazulensis
Synonyms:
Taxonomic discussion: Substantial differences of opinion have arisen between authors on where to place the boundaries between the various morphospecies in the pomeroli -cerroazulensis-cocoaensis morphocline. Ultimately this must be a subjective decision, based on the morphologies of the respective holotypes, all of which are illustrated by SEM in this work (for the first time, in the case of the latter two; Pl. 15.3, Figs. 1-3; Pl. 15.4, Figs. 1-3). Turborotalia cerroazulensis has an obtuse periphery in edge view, and in our opinion is sufficiently close to both the holotype and neotype of Globorotalia centralis Cushman and Bermúdez (the name-bearing type of Turborotalia) to be considered conspecific. It is clearly distinct from cocoaensis, however, which has an acute periphery. In this we agree in most respects with Toumarkine and Bolli (1970), rather than Blow and Banner (1962) and Blow (1969, 1979), who regarded cerroazulensis and cocoaensis as synonyms and used the name centralis for morphologies that are mostly assigned to pomeroli in this work. See also discussion under Turborotalia increbescens. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina cerroazulensis, Globorotalia bonairensis, Globorotalia centralis

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Like T. pomeroli but more conical in edge view, with flatter spiral side, generally lower trochospiral, & more compressed chambers.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.

Description


Diagnostic characters: Turborotalia cerroazulensis is distinguished from T. pomeroli, with which it intergrades, by the flatter spiral side, generally lower trochospiral, more compressed chambers and more conical shape in edge view. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Wall type: Smooth, normal perforate with pustulose earlier chambers and pustules around umbilicus; some tendency for pore reduction at periphery; smooth calcification over proloculus; tendency to defoliate; questionable sparse spine holes. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Moderate trochospiral, rounded-conical shape with 4-5 chambers in the final whorl; chambers appressed and embracing, strongly radially compressed and increasing moderately in size; final chamber commonly dorso-ventrally flattened; in edge view, showing obtuse or right angle at periphery and arching over towards umbilicus; dorsal sutures curved, flat or slightly depressed; aperture a broad arch, sometimes slit-like and in other specimens almost circular, generally not extending towards the periphery; an imperforate or pustulose lip is sometimes visible; more commonly it is obscured by inward folding of the final chamber; umbilicus very narrow; ventral sutures slightly curved, depressed; usually a strong tendency for sinistral coiling. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Size: Holotype length 0.35 mm, breadth 0.26 mm. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Subcircularchamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Planoconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Crescenticcoiling axis:Moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Subtriangularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Subangularaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Moderately pustuloseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-5.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology


Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan. [Pearson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Cosmopolitan; based on Pearson et al. (2006)

Isotope paleobiology: Turborotalia cerroazulensis tends to have ∂18O and ∂13C values that are intermediate between mixed-layer and thermocline dwellers, indicating a shallow subsurface habitat (Poore and Matthews, 1984; Boersma and others, 1987; Pearson and others, 2001). [Pearson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 2 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, without symbionts. Based on δ13C lighter than species with symbionts; also with relatively light δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Pearson et al. (2007)

Phylogenetic relations: Evolved from Turborotalia pomeroli in the middle Eocene (Blow and Banner, 1962; Toumarkine and Bolli, 1970). [Pearson et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Turborotalia pomeroli - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Pearson et al. (2006), fig 15.1.
Likely descendants: Turborotalia cocoaensis;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Middle Eocene, lower Zone E11 (Toumarkine and Bolli, 1970) to just below the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (within Zone E16) (Coccioni and others, 1988). [Pearson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): in upper part of E16 zone (80% up, 34.1Ma, in Priabonian stage). Data source: Pearson et al. (2006), fig. 15.1
First occurrence (base): in lower part of E11 zone (30% up, 41.4Ma, in Lutetian stage). Data source: Pearson et al. (2006), fig. 15.1

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Pearson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 15, p. 442

References:

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Turborotalia cerroazulensis compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 9-4-2020

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