Paragloborotalia kugleri

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Paragloborotalia -> Paragloborotalia kugleri
Sister taxa: P. acrostoma, P. incognita, P. pseudocontinuosa, P. semivera, P. kugleri, P. pseudokugleri, P. mayeri, P. siakensis, P. birnageae, P. continuosa, P. opima, P. nana, P. griffinoides, P. sp.,


Citation: Paragloborotalia kugleri (Bolli, 1957)
Rank: species
Basionym: Globorotalia kugleri Bolli, 1957
Taxonomic discussion:

When Paragloborotalia kugleri was described by Bolli (1957), he included within the concept forms which were later separated as pseudokugleri by Blow (1969) (see also Postuma, 1971). Most authors since the 1990s have followed Blow, as we do here, although influential works by Stainforth and others (1975), Kennett and Srinivasan (1983), and Bolli and Saunders (1985) continued to recognize only kugleri. Spezzaferri (1991) and Rögl (1996) recognized spine holes, and Spezzaferri (1991; pl. 1, fig. 6) illustrated calcite build-ups (‘rises’) at the intersections of cancellate ridges that may represent gametogenic calcification over spine holes as observed in Trilobatus sacculifer (e.g., Hemleben and Olsson, 2006). However, Pearson and Wade (2009) considered that evidence questionable and failed to find evidence of spine holes or spines embedded in the wall in well-preserved populations from Trinidad. Hence they, and Aze and others (2011), regarded the species as probably nonspinose and referred it, and the closely related pseudokugleri, only questionably to the genus Paragloborotalia. Our ongoing investigations have produced unequivocal evidence of true spines in pseudokugleri (Plate 5.9, Figs. 4, 8), supporting the original evidence of Spezzaferri (1991) and Rögl (1996) and confirming the generic assignment. Like most species of Paragloborotalia, P. kugleri was subject to heavy gametogenetic calcification (Hemleben and others, 1989) making spines often difficult to detect. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Catalog entries: Globorotalia kugleri

Type images:

Distinguishing features:

Like P. pseudokugleri but the final chamber shows a distinct pinching; the chambers are less inflated and more appressed; the outline is more ovate and less lobulate; spiral side sutures are more strongly curved and less depressed.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters:

Paragloborotalia kugleri would appear to have evolved from P. pseudokugleri by gradual evolutionary transition (Blow, 1969, 1979; Chaproniere, 1981; Keller, 1981; Premoli Silva and Spezzaferri, 1990; Spezzaferri, 1991; Leckie and others, 1993; Pearson, 1995; Pearson and Chaisson, 1997). No detailed morphometric study has yet been attempted, but the overall features of the evolutionary trend are generally agreed by workers. Because it is a gradual transition, the distinction of the two taxa is an arbitrary divide, and the lowermost specimens of kugleri in a given section are usually rare and found among an intergrading population that is predominantly assigned to pseudokugleri. The frequency of kugleri versus pseudokugleri typically increases up-section, with the pseudokugleri morphospecies often persisting through much of the range of kugleri.

Because kugleri is an important zone fossil whose lowermost occurrence defines Zone M1 and approximates the Oligocene/Miocene boundary (Steininger and others, 1997), it is important to establish clear criteria for distinguishing the morphospecies. The method for doing this should involve careful consideration of the morphology of two holotype specimens (which are shown here in SEM for the first time on their respective plates) and trying to draw the line half way between them, rather than by trying to develop an idealized view of what a quintessential kugleri and pseudokugleri should look like. This point is stressed because the pseudokugleri holotype is quite an ‘advanced’ form for the morphospecies, and shows various features that tend to be more clearly associated with kugleri, especially the number of chambers in the final whorl and curved spiral sutures, as discussed further below. A mosaic of characters is involved when trying to draw a subjective line in the evolutionary transition between the morphospecies. It is a multidimensional problem that ultimately may benefit from a quantitative, morphometric approach using multivariate statistics. At present, however, we rely on our subjective appreciation of shape to accomplish this task.

Before proceeding, it is worth mentioning that some authors (Premoli Silva and Spezzaferri, 1990; Spezzaferri and Premoli Silva, 1991; Spezzaferri, 1994; Rögl, 1996) have recognized on their range charts a third morphotype in open nomenclature as “pseudokugleri - kugleri transition”. To operate that distinction, it would be necessary (using the same principles described above) to define arbitrary divisions between 1) pseudokugleri s.s. and “pseudokugleri - kugleri transition”; and 2) between “pseudokugleri - kugleri transition” and kugleri s.s. Moreover, the lowermost kugleri s.s. is likely to be drawn at somewhat higher level if transitional forms are entered in to a separate category. We have elected not to do this and assign all ‘transitional’ forms to one or the other morphospecies.

The principal morphological changes that occur from ‘primitive’ pseudokugleri to ‘advanced’ kugleri are as follows;

  1. An increase in the number of chambers in the final whorl from 5-6 to 7 and more rarely 8,
  2. A concomitant reduction in the rate of chamber enlargement, making successive chambers more equal in size,
  3. Reduced inflation and increasing compression and appression of the chambers,
  4. A concomitant reduction in the lobateness of the periphery, which ranges from ovate to more circular,
  5. A transition from straight to strongly curved sutures on the spiral side,
  6. An increase in the tendency for weakly curved sutures on the umbilical side,
  7. Less marked depression of the spiral side sutures,
  8. Flattening of the spiral side generally, although some ‘advanced’ forms are convex on both sides and biconvex - lensoidal in overall morphology,
  9. Increased pinching of the periphery of the final one or more chambers, which go from sub-rounded to sub-acute,
  10. A slight increase in average size, after an initially more rapid increase near the very beginning of the stratigraphic range (Spezzaferri, 1994).

As mentioned above, the holotype of pseudokugleri is a considerable way along this transition. It has 7 chambers in the final whorl, which expand fairly slowly in size; fairly inflated chambers and a distinctly lobulate periphery with, nevertheless moderate chamber appression; slightly curved sutures on the spiral side throughout ontogeny (see the SEMs of the holotype, Pl. 5.9, Figs. 1-3; these are seemingly exaggerated on Bolli’s original drawing; Blow (1969) on the other hand, originally described the sutures as straight); straight sutures on the umbilical side; moderately depressed spiral side sutures with a moderately flattened spiral side; and a fully rounded periphery. A rounded periphery is the key feature of pseudokugleri s.s. (e.g., Leckie and others, 1993). Pearson and Wade (2009) collected more specimens from the ‘cotype locality’ at Mosquito Creek, Trinidad, which show a similar set of characters. The holotype of kugleri shows 8 chambers of gradually increasing size in the final whorl, although the final chamber is unusually large; low chamber inflation and high appression making the periphery almost entire and non-lobulate; strongly curved spiral side sutures and fairly straight umbilical side sutures; a very flat spiral side and a somewhat pinched/subacute periphery to the final chamber. An asymmetrically subacute periphery is a key feature of kugleri s.s.

It is clear from this that the number of chambers in the final whorl and the presence of curved spiral sutures are of less importance in distinguishing the morphospecies than some of the other features. Accordingly, we suggest the following guidelines for distinguishing kugleri: most importantly, the final chamber should show a distinct pinching and not be broadly rounded (contra Rögl, 1996); the chambers are less inflated and more appressed and the outline is more ovate and less lobulate; and spiral side sutures are more strongly curved and less depressed than is typical in pseudokugleri; and the spiral side is generally flatter. A combination of these features allows for the most reliable means to differentiate the two taxa and recognize the base of Zone M1 near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary.

Finally, although the spiral side in kugleri is usually flat, it can also be convex, rendering the test markedly biconvex (e.g., Premoli Silva and Spezzaferri, 1990, pl. 3, fig. 5a-c; Spezzaferri, 1991, fig. 1a-d). These variants have sometimes been identified as Globorotalia (Turborotalia) mendacis Blow but the holotype of that species is regarded here as a synonym of P. birnageae. Paragloborotalia kugleri is distinguished from P. birnageae by its more asymmetrically subacute peripheral margin, more ovate equatorial outline, flatter spiral side, and higher aperture with smaller lip (P. kugleri lacks an appressed final chamber with flap-like flange or apertural plate). It is distinguished from Fohsella? peripheroronda by its generally greater number of chambers in the final whorl (typically 7 compared with 6) and slower rate of chamber expansion giving kugleri a more circular equatorial outline compared with a more ovate outline of peripheroronda. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Wall type: Normal perforate, coarsely cancellate, sparsely spinose in life, heavy gametogenetic calcification is often present.

Test morphology: Test small to medium in size; low trochospiral; 6 to typically 7, rarely 8 chambers in the final whorl, increasing slowly in size; equatorial outline slightly lobulate, circular to slightly ovate depending on the size of the final chamber which is often smaller than the penultimate chamber; in spiral view chambers arranged in 2½-3 whorls, sutures slightly depressed, strongly curved; in umbilical view chambers wedge-shaped, weakly inflated, sutures slightly depressed, radial or slightly curved, umbilicus narrow and moderately deep; aperture umbilical-extraumbilical, a low arch, frequently hooked, typically bordered by a lip; in edge view spiral side nearly flat to moderately convex, umbilical side more convex, periphery of final chamber subacute. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.30 mm (original measurement); 0.27 mm (remeasured this study); thickness 0.15 mm (this study). [Leckie et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Subcircularchamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Narrowly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:6.0-8.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: According to Kennett and Srinivasan (1983) and Rögl (1996), this species is limited to the tropics and subtropics, but in fact it has been found nearly as far north as the Reykjanes Ridge and east Greenland margin in the North Atlantic Ocean (Poore, 1979; Spezzaferri, 1998). [Leckie et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: Paragloborotalia kugleri has low δ18O and high δ13C relative to other species suggesting it was a mixed-layer dweller (Douglas and Savin, 1973; Biolzi, 1983; van Eijden and Ganssen, 1995; Pearson and others, 1997; Spezzaferri and Pearson, 2009). [Leckie et al. 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: Evolved by gradual transition from P. pseudokugleri (Blow, 1969, and subsequent authors; see discussion above). Many have proposed that kugleri is the direct ancestor of F.? peripheroronda and the Fohsella lineage (e.g., Fleisher, 1974, Stainforth and others, 1975; Keller, 1981; Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Cifelli and Scott, 1986; Chaisson and Leckie, 1993). An alternate hypothesis is that kugleri became extinct with no descendants. Olsson (1972) proposed that mayeri was the ancestor of peripheroronda, while Jenkins (1960, 1971) and Blow (1969) suggested that mayeri was the descendant of peripheroronda. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Paragloborotalia pseudokugleri - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Leckie et al. 2018.
Likely descendants: Fohsella peripheroronda;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Base of Zone M1, by definition, to top of Zone M1, also by definition (Berggren and others, 1995; Wade and others, 2011; see discussion in Chapter 2, this volume). The base of Zone M1 occurs two meters above the ‘golden spike’ for the Neogene Period, Miocene Epoch, and Aquitanian Stage, at Lemme-Carrosio, Italy (Steininger and others, 1997) hence it is used to approximate these levels in planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. [Leckie et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): at top of M1 zone (100% up, 21.1Ma, in Aquitanian stage). Data source: Wade et al. 2011; Leckie et al. 2018
First occurrence (base): at base of M1 zone (0% up, 23Ma, in Aquitanian stage). Data source: Wade et al. 2011; Leckie et al. 2018

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Leckie et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.5 p.141


Berggren, W. A. & Amdurer, A. (1973). Late Paleogene (Oligocene) and Neogene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Atlantic Ocean (Lat. 30N to Lat. 30S). RIvista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia. 79: 337-392. gs :: ::

Berggren, W. A., Aubry, M. -P. & Hamilton, N. (1983). Neogene magnetobiostratigraphy of DSDP Site 516, Rio Grande Rise (South Atlantic). Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 72: 675-713. gs :: ::

Berggren, W. A., Kent, D. V., Swisher, I. , C. C. & Aubry, M. -P. (1995b). A revised Cenozoic geochronology and chronostratigraphy. In, Berggren, W. A. , Kent, D. V. , Aubry, M. -P. & Hardenbol, J. (eds) Geochronology, Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlations. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) Special Publication No. 54, 129-212. gs :: ::

Biolzi, M. (1983). Stable isotopic study of Oligocene-Miocene sediments from DSDP Site 354, equatorial Atlantic. Marine Micropaleontology. 8: 121-139. gs :: ::

Blow, W. H. (1969). Late middle Eocene to Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In, Bronnimann, P. & Renz, H. H. (eds) Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva, 1967. E J Brill, Leiden 380-381. gs :: ::

Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs :: ::

Bolli, H. M. & Saunders, J. B. (1985). Oligocene to Holocene low latitude planktic foraminifera. In, Bolli, H. M. , Saunders, J. B. & Perch-Neilsen, K. (eds) Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 155-262. gs :: ::

Bolli, H. M. (1957b). Planktonic foraminifera from the Oligocene-Miocene Cipero and Lengua formations of Trinidad, B.W.I. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr. , Tappan, H. , Beckmann, J. P. , Bolli, H. M. , Montanaro Gallitelli & E. Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 97-123. gs :: ::

Brönnimann, P. & Resig, J. (1971). A Neogene globigerinacean biochronologic time-scale of the southwestern Pacific. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 7(2): 1235-1469. gs :: ::

Chaisson, W. P. & Leckie, R. M. (1993). High-resolution Neogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of Site 806, Ontong Java Plateau (Western Equatorial Pacific). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 130: 137-178. gs :: ::

Chaproniere, G. C. H. (1981). Late Oligocene to Early Miocene planktic Foraminiferida from Ashmore Reef no. 1 well, northwest Australia. Alcheringa. 5: 103-131. gs :: ::

Cifelli, R. & Scott, G. H. (1986). Stratigraphic record of the Neogene globorotaliid radiation (Planktonic Foraminiferida). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 58: 101-. gs :: ::

Douglas, R. G. & Savin, S. M. (1973). Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses of Cretaceous and Tertiary foraminifera from the central North Pacific. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 17: 591-605. gs :: ::

Fleisher, R. L. (1974a). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 23: 1001-1072. gs :: ::

Hemleben, C. & Olsson, R. K. (2006). Wall textures of Eocene planktonic foraminifera. In, Pearson, P. N. , Olsson, R. K. , Hemleben, C. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 4): 47-66. gs :: ::

Hemleben, C., Spindler, M. & Anderson, O. (1989). Modern Planktonic Foraminifera. Springer-Verlag, New York. -. gs :: ::

Jenkins, D. G. & Orr, W. N. (1972). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the east equatorial Pacific--DSDP Leg 9. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 9: 1059-1193. gs :: ::

Jenkins, D. G. (1960). Planktonic foraminifera from the Lakes Entrance oil shaft, Victoria, Australia. Micropaleontology. 6: 345-371. gs :: ::

Keller, G. (1981). Origin and evolution of the genus Globigerinoides in the Early Miocene of the northwestern Pacific, DSDP Site 292. Micropaleontology. 27(3): 293-304. gs :: ::

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs :: ::

Krasheninnikov, V. A. & Pflaumann, U. (1978). Cretaceous agglutinated foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean off west Africa (Leg 41, Deep Sea Drilling Project). Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 41: 565-580. gs :: ::

Leckie, R. M., Farnham, C. & Schmidt, M. G. (1993). Oligocene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of Hole 803D (Ontong Java Plateau) and Hole 628A (Little Bahama Bank), and comparison with the southern high latitudes. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 130: 113-136. gs :: ::

Leckie, R. M. et al. (2018). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene and Lower Miocene Paragloborotalia and Parasubbotina. In, Wade, B. S. , Olsson, R. K. , Pearson, P. N. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 5): 125-178. gs :: ::

Li, Q., Jian, Z. & Su, X. (2005). Late Oligocene rapid transformations in the South China Sea. Marine Micropaleontology. 54: 5-25. gs :: ::

Olsson, R. K. (1972). Growth Changes in the Globorotalia fohsi Lineage. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 65(1): 165-184. gs :: ::

Pearson, P. N. & Chaisson, W. P. (1997). Late Paleocene to middle Miocene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy, Ceara Rise. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 33-68. gs :: ::

Pearson, P. N. & Wade, B. S. (2009). Taxonomy and stable isotope paleoecology of well-preserved planktonic foraminifera from the uppermost Oligocene of Trinidad. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39: 191-217. gs :: ::

Pearson, P. N. (1995). Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy and the development of pelagic caps on guyots in the Marshall Islands group. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 144: 21-59. gs :: ::

Pearson, P. N., Shackleton, N. J., Weedon, G. P. & Hall, M. A. (1997b). Multispecies planktonic foraminifer stable isotope stratigraphy through Oligocene/Miocene boundary climatic cycles, Site 926. 154, 441-450. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 154: 441-450. gs :: ::

Poore, R. Z. (1979). Oligocene through quarternary planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the North Atlantic: DSDP LEG 49. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 49: 447-517. gs :: ::

Postuma, J. A. (1971). Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Elsevier for Shell Group, The Hague. 1-406. gs :: ::

Premoli Silva, I. & Spezzaferri, S. (1990). Paleogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental remarks on paleogene sediments from Indian Ocean sites, Leg 115. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 115: 277-314. gs :: ::

Quilty, P. G. (1976). Planktonic foraminifera DSDP Leg 34, Nazca Plate. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 34: 629-703. gs :: ::

Rincón, D. et al. (2007). Eocene–Pliocene planktonic foraminifera biostratigraphy from the continental margin of the southwest Caribbean. Stratigraphy. 4: 261-311. gs :: ::

Rögl, F. (1996). Paragloborotalia kugleri (Bolli): An index fossil for the Paleogene/Neogene boundary. Giornale di Geologia. 58: 151-155. gs :: ::

Spezzaferri, S. & Pearson, P. N. (2009). Distribution and ecology of Catapsydrax indianus, a new planktonic foraminifer index species for the Late Oligocene–Early Miocene. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39(2): 112-119. gs :: ::

Spezzaferri, S. & Premoli Silva, I. (1991). Oligocene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoclimatic interpretation from Hole 538A, DSDP Leg 77, Gulf of Mexico. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 83: 217-263. gs :: ::

Spezzaferri, S. (1991). Evolution and taxonomy of the Paragloborotalia kugleri (Bolli) lineage. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 21: 313-318. gs :: ::

Spezzaferri, S. (1994). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and taxonomy of the Oligocene and lower Miocene in the oceanic record. An overview. Palaeontographia Italica. 81: 1-187. gs :: ::

Spezzaferri, S. (1998). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental implications of Leg 152 sites (East Greenland Margin). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 152: 161-190. gs :: ::

Stainforth, R. M. & Lamb, J. L. (1981). An evaluation of planktonic foraminiferal zonation of the Oligocene. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions. 104: 1-34. gs :: ::

Stainforth, R. M., Lamb, J. L., Luterbacher, H., Beard, J. H. & Jeffords, R. M. (1975). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal zonation and characteristics of index forms. University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions. 62: 1-425. gs :: ::

Steininger, F. F. et al. (1997). The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Neogene. Episodes. 20: 23-28. gs :: ::

van Eijden, A. J. M. & Ganssen, G. M. (1995). An Oligocene multi-species foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope record from ODP Hole 758A (Indian Ocean): paleoceanographic and paleo-ecologic implications. Marine Micropaleontology. 25: 47-65. gs :: ::

van Eijden, A. J. M. & Smit, J. (1991). Eastern Indian Ocean Cretaceous and Paleogene quantitative biostratigraphy. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 121: 77-123. gs :: ::

Vincent, E. & Toumarkine, M. (1990). Neogene planktonic foraminifers from the western tropical Indian Ocean, Leg 115. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 115: 795-836. gs :: ::

Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., Berggren, W. A. & Pälike, H. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews. 104: 111-142. gs :: ::


Paragloborotalia kugleri compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 10-7-2020

Taxon Search:
Advanced Search

Short stable page link: Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Comments (0)

No comments yet on this page. Please do add comments if you spot any problems, or have information to share

Add Comment

* Required information
Captcha Image
Powered by Commentics