Catapsydrax indianus

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Catapsydrax -> Catapsydrax indianus
Sister taxa: C. indianus, C. dissimilis, C. globiformis, C. africanus, C. howei, C. unicavus, C. sp.,


Citation: Catapsydrax indianus Spezzaferri and Pearson, 2009
Rank: species
Taxonomic discussion:

Catapsydrax indianus represents an extreme end member in the trend for bulla extension and increased numbers of accessory (infralaminal) openings seen in Oligocene to Miocene catapsydracids. This distinctive taxon is a useful guide fossil in the Indian Ocean for the Oligocene/Miocene boundary interval (Spezzaferri and Pearson, 2009). Note that the figured specimens from ODP Site 709 are recrystallized, as shown by replacement of the original cancellate wall structure with euhedral crystals (Pl. 4.2, Fig. 8). [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Catalog entries: Catapsydrax indianus

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Like C. dissimilis but more globular form, bulla lobed, and with 4-5 infralaminal accessory apertures.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters:

This species differs from Catapsydrax dissimilis and Catapsydrax unicavus in the more globular form, the lobed and/or two part morphology of the bulla and the possession of 4-5 infralaminal accessory apertures. It differs from Globorotaloides stainforthi, which also has multiple infralaminal apertures, in the globular subspherical shape of the test. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Wall type: Strongly cancellate, with hexagonal pores located in deep pore pits, sacculifer-type to ruber/sacculifer-type; evidence for a gametogenic calcite crust. Although evidence for spines has not been observed in the studied specimens, Olsson and others (2006a) regarded the genus Catapsydrax as probably spinose. Generally, the bulla is less coarsely cancellate than the rest of the test.

Test morphology: Globular, globigeriniform coiling mode with a moderately high trochospire consisting of about 2½-3 whorls. Profile subcircular with a rounded to slightly lobed peripheral margin. Early ontogenetic whorl, comprising 4½-5 chambers, is typically raised slightly above the adult whorl; final adult whorl consists of 3½-4 subspherical chambers, gradually increasing in size. Sutures straight, depressed on the umbilical side; moderately depressed and slightly curved on the spiral side.

The umbilicus is moderately deep and covered by a bulla in adult specimens. The primary aperture is a small and semicircular low umbilical arch, visible only when the bulla is broken or missing. The bulla has multiple lobes and may consist of two parts (Plate 4.2, Fig. 6). Around the bulla are 4-5 often arched infralaminal apertures bordered by weak rims; four of these apertures open over the sutures with one usually opening over the central part of the antepenultimate chamber; size of accessory apertural openings over the antepenultimate is variable (see Plate 4.2).

[Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018] [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype ~0.38 mm, thickness ~0.38 mm. Tests may be medium to large but are commonly large. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Bulla
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Infralaminal
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Weakly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.5-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Global, low to mid-latitudes (Spezzaferri and Pearson, 2009). [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: Catapsydrax indianus registers among the most positive δ18O values of assemblages and lowest δ13C indicating it was a sub-thermocline calcifier (Spezzaferri and Pearson, 2009). [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: Catapsydrax indianus evolved from Catapsydrax dissimilis (Spezzaferri and Pearson, 2009). [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018] [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Catapsydrax dissimilis - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Spezzaferri and Pearson, 2009; Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: It ranges from the lower third of upper Oligocene Zone P22 (= O6) to lower Miocene Zone N5 of Blow (1979) (Spezzaferri and Pearson, 2009), which is equivalent to Zone M2/M3 of Wade and others (2011). [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within M2 zone (19.30-21.12Ma, top in Burdigalian stage). Data source: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018 f4.1
First occurrence (base): within O6 zone (25.21-26.93Ma, base in Chattian stage). Data source: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018 f4.1

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.4 p.87


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Coxall, H. K. & Spezzaferri, S. (2018). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, and Protentelloides. In, Wade, B. S. , Olsson, R. K. , Pearson, P. N. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 4): 79-124. gs :: ::

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Spezzaferri, S. & Pearson, P. N. (2009). Distribution and ecology of Catapsydrax indianus, a new planktonic foraminifer index species for the Late Oligocene–Early Miocene. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39(2): 112-119. gs :: ::

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Catapsydrax indianus compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 11-8-2020

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