Dentoglobigerina venezuelana

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Dentoglobigerina -> Dentoglobigerina venezuelana
Sister taxa: D. juxtabinaiensis, D. binaiensis, D. sellii, D. tapuriensis ⟩⟨ D. baroemoenensis, D. larmeui, D. galavisi ⟩⟨ D. altispira, D. globosa, D. globularis ⟩⟨ D. prasaepis, D. pseudovenezuelana, D. taci, D. tripartita, D. eotripartita, D. venezuelana, D. sp.


Citation: Dentoglobigerina venezuelana (Hedberg, 1937)
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerina venezuelana Hedberg, 1937

(Note: This synonymy list focuses on taxonomically important works and Oligocene to lower Miocene occurrences)

Taxonomic discussion:

So-called ‘Globoquadrina conglomerata (Schwager)’ is a commonly recognized component of modern living Indo-Pacific populations (Parker, 1962, 1967; Saito and others, 1981; Hemleben and others, 1989; and many subsequent studies), but here we point out that the specific name is, unfortunately, probably not valid for the living form, and that conglomerata is likely a prior synonym for the fossil species Dentoglobigerina venezuelana (Hedberg); however, to avoid further confusion, we do not advocate using the name in that sense.

Schwager (1866) described Globigerina conglomerata from ‘upper Tertiary’ samples collected from Car (= ‘Kar’) Nicobar in the Bay of Bengal. Banner and Blow (1960) noted that Schwager’s illustrated specimen was lost and selected a neotype from a collection of 40 specimens that had been sent by Schwager to H.B. Brady in London and discussed briefly by Brady (1884). Banner and Blow (1960) regarded all 40 specimens as conspecific with the type illustration, although Brady (1884) had expressed doubts on this. The neotype is deposited at the British Museum (Natural History) number P44031 and the rest of the collection is also there. The neotype (a large specimen, diameter 0.75 mm) was illustrated (line drawing) in three views and was accompanied by a detailed description by Banner and Blow (1960). Srinivasan and Sharma (1974) re-studied the type locality of conglomerata and showed that it is lower Pliocene (assigned to their Zone N19 and the lower part of Zone N20 = Zones PL1-2). We have viewed the lectotype and the rest of Schwager’s collection at the Natural History Museum, London. In our view the collection is a typical lower Pliocene mixture of Dentoglobigerina venezuelana and D. altispira. The presence of D. altispira shows it must be older than Pliocene (~3.5 Ma). We note that the holotype comes from the same ‘lower and upper clays’ as Sphaeroidinellopsis seminulina Schwager, another reminder that it must be lower Pliocene at youngest. In our view the neotype is conspecific with venezuelana. We defer to workers on modern planktonic foraminifera to determine the correct name for the living form; here we refer to it as ‘Dentoglobigerina cf. conglomerata Schwager’.

Dentoglobigerina venezuelana may also have been described as Globigerina bulloides d’Orbigny var. quadripartita Koch, 1926, but that species was regarded as a nomen dubium by Blow and Banner (1962) who observed that the holotype was broken (see also Postuma, 1971).

Dentoglobigerina venezuelana has sometimes been confused with Globoturborotalita euapertura, Dentoglobigerina prasaepis and D. pseudovenezuelana. It is likely ancestral to the modern species, D. cf. conglomerata, which appears to have evolved from it over the Pliocene epoch, possibly via an intermediate form Globoquadrina pseudofoliata Parker (Parker, 1967; Chaisson and Leckie, 1993). [Wade et al. 2018]

Catalog entries: Globigerina venezuelana

Type images:

Distinguishing features:

Large to very large, robust, outline circular; 3½-4 embracing, reniform chambers in the final whorl, final chamber commonly reduced in size and flattened; umbilicus small, commonly triangular may have a tooth 

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Cancellate, probably spinose in life, pustulose, sometimes with concentrations of pustules on the umbilical shoulders.

Morphology: Large to very large, robust, globular, spherical, outline circular; in spiral view 3½-4 embracing, reniform chambers that slowly increase in size in the final whorl, final chamber commonly reduced in size and flattened, sutures weakly depressed; in edge view globular, oval in outline; in umbilical view 3½-4 appressed and embracing chambers in final whorl that slowly increase in size, final chamber commonly reduced in size, partially closing the umbilicus, sutures depressed; umbilicus small, commonly triangular in shape, aperture umbilical, often concealed, may be bordered by an irregular triangular tooth or a lip with no tooth. [Wade et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.52 mm, minimum diameter 0.50 mm. [Wade et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Subcircularchamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Moderate-highperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Tooth
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Relict
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.5-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Global in low and mid-latitudes. [Wade et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: A variety of authors have analyzed this species for stable isotopes, and large specimens commonly register values indicative of a deep-dwelling habitat (e.g., Gasperi and Kennett, 1993; Pearson and Shackleton, 1995; Pearson and others, 1997; Pearson and Wade, 2009; Nathan and Leckie, 2003) but some studies have indicated a shallower calcification depth (e.g., Poore and Matthews, 1984; Wade and others, 2007; Beltran and others, 2014; Moore and others, 2014). The discrepancy may be partially resolved if the species lived near the surface when pre-adult, but with late-stage calcification at depth. Stewart and others (2012) published stable isotope data from a number of morphotypes of “venezuelana”, suggesting a shallow habitat for pre-adult forms, deepening in the adult stage. However, we have found their images difficult to evaluate because of unorthodox umbilical orientations and lack of multiple views. [Wade et al. 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: Dentoglobigerina venezuelana evolved from D. prasaepis in the early Oligocene (Pearson and Wade, 2015) and probably gave rise to the extant species D. cf. conglomerata. [Wade et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Dentoglobigerina prasaepis - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Dentoglobigerina venezuelana.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: The lowest occurrence is not well constrained. Observations from DSDP Site 612 (H.K. Coxall, pers. comm.) and from Armenia suggest evolution in the late Eocene with confirmed occurrences from the lower Oligocene Zone O1 (Leckie and others, 1993). It persists to the Pliocene (e.g., Chaisson and Leckie, 1993). [Wade et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within Early Pliocene Sub-Epoch (3.60-5.33Ma, top in Zanclean stage). Data source: Wade et al. 2018
First occurrence (base): within O1 zone (32.10-33.90Ma, base in Priabonian stage). Data source: Wade et al. 2018 (with tentative range extension to E16

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Wade et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.11 p.373


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Dentoglobigerina venezuelana compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 21-1-2021

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