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Current identification/main database link:
Not given. [Parker, Jones, and Brady, 1871 p. 175]: "A large, many-chambered lobular variety. These show a tendency to have bilobate segments, whilst [d' Orbigny's Globigerina bulloides] shows trilobation."
Description of lectotype: The fairly large test consists of about 13 chambers arranged in a high, fairly tightly coiled trochospire of about three whorls. There are about four chambers in the initial whorl and about 4½ in the final whorl, the final chamber being much reduced in size and misshapen, although it follows the normal progression of chambers in the spire. The equatorial profile is subcircular and the equatorial periphery is moderately lobulate. The axial profile is subconical with a broadly and smoothly rounded axial periphery. The chambers are inflated, sub-globular, moderately embracing, and are broadly reniform in dorsal aspect. The dorsal and ventral intercameral sutures are distinctly depressed and are nearly radial in ventral and dorsal aspects. The spiral suture is equally depressed and is broadly lobulate. The umbilicus is small relative to the size of the test. The primary aperture of the penultimate chamber (the last normal chamber) appears to be a moderately low interiomarginal umbilical arch leading directly into the umbilicus; no apertural rim or lip is visible on the lectotype. The primary aperture of the abnormal final chamber is a fairly long low arch, mainly umbilical in position. The waH is distinctly, fairly finely and uniformly perforate. The surface of the test is faintly hispid. [Banner & Blow 1960]
Size: Maximum diameter of lectotype: 0.52 mm. [Banner & Blow 1960]
Extra details from original publication
Polymorphina globiferum Soldani, 1789-1799, Testaceographiae ac Zoophytographiae parvae et microscopicae. Senis: F. Rossi, vol. 2, p. 118, pl. 130.
Taxonomic remarks: in 1826 d'Orbigny propsed the name Globigerina helicina for specimens he had obtained from the Adriatic Sea near Rimini. He neither described nor illustrated his species but merely referred to three forms illustrated by Soldani (1791). Of the three Soldani drawings only two (qq and rr) were unequivocably referred by d'Orbigny to his species; Soldani's figure "rr"" is completely unrecognisable but his figure ""qq"" (here copied) has a recognisable affinity ·to a form, here considered abortive, which is related to Globigerinoides ruber (see p. 19). Brady was well aware of this Soldani illustration since he, together with Parker and Jones, reproduced it in 1871 (Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vol. 8, pI. 11, figure 113). Brady (1884) subsequently referred specimens from the Challenger Collection to Globigerina helicina d'Orbigny having based his determinations upon Soldani's figure ""qq"" (op. cit., p. 605). Brady also believed it to be a ""monstrous or abnormal development,"" most resembling ""an ordinary small Globigerine shell of the ""rubra"" type, with the addition of an inflated chamber at two opposite points of its periphery."" We fully agree with this having seen Brady's specimens (which he illustrated) and having ourselves noted that the early whorls have the identical and typical red-colouration of G. rubra (Brady's (1884) illustration, pl. 81, fig. 4, is reproduced; and the other view of this specimen is figured here for the first time (see pI. 3, figs. 7a-c).
When Fornasini (1898) published d'Orbigny's original (circa 1823-5) drawing of G. helicina, he pointed out that d'Orbigny's specimen did not match either the Soldani illustration or Brady's subsequent determination. Fornasini considered it preferable to retain the name ""helicina"" for the form illustrated by Soldani and Brady; subsequently, in 1899, he proposed the new species Globigerina adriatica for specimens which he believed matched d'Orbigny's drawing. In the Alcide d'Orbigny collections deposited in the Museum National de I'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, one single specimen only exists bearing the name Globigerina helicina d'Orbigny. It was obtained from a locality (recorded on the mount) as ""Subapennin, Rimini,"" and it may be seen from our illustration of this single remaining specimen that it agrees quite well with d'Orbigny's drawing of the species. The specimen illustrated here is clearly syntypic, having been mounted by Terquem from d'Orbigny's Rimini material. As far as is known, d'Orbigny never subsequently altered his determined Rimini material after 1826; indeed it is highly likely that the d'Orbigny material lay undisturbed until re-examined by Terquem.
This specimen, here illustrated, is therefore here designated as the lectotype of Globigerina helicina d'Orbigny.
The abortive form figured by Soldani (op. cit., lac. cit.) had, prior to this designation of lectotype, syntypic status equal to, but not greater than, that of the syntypes .collected by d'Orbigny. All these specimens were nominally available for lectotypic selection (see also the taxonomic remarks under Globigerina elongata, p. 12).
Although Fornasini (1899) placed the specimen illustrated by d'Orbigny (Planches Inedites) in full synonymy with Globigerina adriatica we believe the d'Orbigny specimen to have been conspecific with our lectotype and distinct from Fornasini's specimen illustrated as ""plate 3, figure 6"" (lac. cit.). However, the illustration by Fornasini of his species ""adriatica"" on pI. 3, figure 7, is possibly conspecific with the lectotype of Globigerina helicina d'Orbigny. [Banner & Blow 1960]
Remarks: In the d'Orbigny drawing, which was first published by Fornasini in 1898 the final aperture in axial peripheral view is clearly umbilical and is now seen to be correct. However, in the umbilical (ventral) view the aperture is shown to be extraumbilical; this may have been occasioned by the fact that an abnormal final chamber was present (but not clearly indicated) in d'Orbigny's original specimen. Indeed it is possible that the lectotype, here figured, pI. 2, fig. 5, is actually the same specimen as that sketched by d'Orbigny. It should be remembered that some of these ""Planches Inedites"" were merely preliminary sketches by d'Orbigny. There is a considerable difference in standard between what are obviously d'Orbigny's preliminary sketches and his finished drawings, which were of a very high standard (see Lys, 1950, pIs. 1,2 and 3) . No supplementary dorsal suturaL apertures are present and the species is therefore correctly referred to the genus Globigerina d'Orbigny. The species is only known to us in collections from the recent seas and we have not observed it fossil. [Banner & Blow 1960]"
Globigerina helicina compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 29-11-2020
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