Classification: pf_neogene -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerina
Sister taxa: Beella, Globigerina, Globigerinella, Protentella, Globigerinoides, Globigerinoidesella, Globoturborotalita, Orbulina, Praeorbulina, Sphaeroidinella, Sphaeroidinellopsis, Trilobatus, Turborotalita, Catapsydrax, Clavatorella, Paragloborotalia, Orcadia,

Distinguishing features: Trochospiral test with a single, large, open umbilical aperture. Spinose, non-cancellate, wall.

Daughter taxa: (blue => in age window 0-300Ma)
Usually 4 chambers in final whorl; Aperture a high symmetrical arch.
4 chambers in final whorl; Umbilicus small but deep; Aperture an elongate narrow arch with prominent lip
5-6 chambers in final whorl; often with kummerform final chamber. Umbilicus very large, deep. Aperture large, umbilical, with thin lip.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species


Citation: Globigerina d’Orbigny, 1826
Rank: genus
Type species: Globigerina bulloides
Taxonomic discussion: As noted  by Kennett & Srinivasan (1983) it used to be general practice to include all trochospiral species with a single, large, open umbilical aperture within Globigerina. However they reccomended dividug it into two gropus based on surface ultrastructure and phylogenetic relations, and following the work of  Collen and Vella (1973) and Fleisher (1974). They termed these groups: (1) Globigerina (Globigerina) d'Orbigny and (2) Globigerina (Zeaglobigerina) Kennett & Srinivasan 1983. These groups are still used but are refered to as the genera Globigerina and Globoturborotalita Hofker 1976

Catalog entries: Globigerina;

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Trochospiral test with a single, large, open umbilical aperture. Spinose, non-cancellate, wall.

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Test morphology:

Trochospiral test with a single, large, open umbilical aperture. Characterized by hispid surface, penetrated by roughly cylindrical pores. No evidence of pore pits or interpore ridges (Pl. 4, Fig. 1). Pores occupy interspaces between short, blunt projections, which represent the bases of long, slender spines observed in living specimens. In fossil specimens, the blunt projections give a hispid (spinose) appearance to the surface of final chamber. The primary objective of restricting this definition of Globigerina is to exclude a large number of phylogenetically unrelated forms from this genus, whose apertural position is also umbilical. [Kennett & Srinvasan 1983]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Phylogenetic relations:

The earliest spinose-walled Globigerina appears to be Gg. officinalis, which gave rise during the Late Eocene to two main lineages: (1) Gg. (Gg.) angustiumbilicata-Gg. (Gg.) ciperoensis and Gg. (Gg.) angulisuturalis lineage and (2) Gg. (Gg.) praebulloides-Gg. (Gg.) bulloides lineage. The first lineage is largely confined to the Paleogene, while the latter is largely a Neogene lineage. [Kennett & Srinvasan 1983]

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): in upper part of Burdigalian Stage (65% up, 17.5Ma, in Burdigalian stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.28


Collen, I.D. & Vella, P., (1973). Pliocene planktonic foraminifera, southern North Island, New Zealand,. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 3(1): 13-29.

d'Orbigny, A., (1826). Tableau methodique de la Classe de Cephalopodes. Annals des Sciences Naturelles, Paris, 7: 245-314.

Fleisher, R.L., (1974). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 23: 1001-1072.

Hofker, J., (1976). La famille Turborotalitidae. Revue de Micropaléontologie, 19: 47-53.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.


Globigerina compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 16-8-2018

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