Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinatheka -> Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta
Sister taxa: G. semiinvoluta, G. tropicalis, G. luterbacheri, G. euganea, G. index, G. curryi, G. barri, G. korotkovi, G. kugleri, G. mexicana, G. subconglobata, G. sp.,


Citation: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta (Keijzer 1945)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerinoides semiinvoluta
Taxonomic discussion: Originally described as Globigerinoides semi-involutus by Keijzer, the hyphen has been removed (ICZN, Art. 32.5) and the ending has been changed to agree in gender with Globigerinatheka (ICZN, Art. 31.2). Bolli (1957) designated hypotypes of G. semiinvoluta from the type locality (Navet Formation, Trinidad). Blow and Saito (1968a) suggested that G. semiinvoluta was synonymous with G. mexicana. However, we recognise G. semiinvoluta and G. mexicana as taxonomically and stratigraphically distinct, although transitional forms occur in uppermost Zone E13 to lowermost Zone E14. Blow (1979, p. 788) stated that G. korotkovi is taxonomically indistinguishable from G. semiinvoluta even though the former species is high spired; he also included G. lindiensis (here considered a synonym of G. tropicalis) saying it is not worth differentiating this species taxonomically from G. semiinvoluta (p. 791) as well as G. rubriformis (here G. korotkovi) that he considered as immature specimens of G. semiinvoluta (p. 813). Blow (1979) included G. semiinvoluta in the genus Porticulasphaera, emended, here considered a junior synonym of Globigerinatheka. Toumarkine (1975) attributed to G. semiinvoluta (and illustrated) two small specimens from Shatsky Rise that exhibit a very rough surface. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides semiinvoluta

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Test globular with very inflated enveloping last chamber. Secondary apertures large, circular, and noticeably rimmed. Short initial spire, sutures mainly indistinct.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta differs from all the other globular globigerinathekids by its very inflated enveloping last chamber, its large and noticeably rimmed, circular secondary apertures, much shorter initial trochospire and mainly indistinct sutures. Globigerinatheka mexicana and G. semiinvoluta differ by the circular apertures with distinctive rims in G. semiinvoluta, which are not present in G. mexicana. G. semiinvoluta is distinguished from G. tropicalis by an embracing final chamber. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Wall type: Spinose, cancellate, thin, with a high density of pores, < 4 mm in diameter. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Test spherical with a very large hemispherical last chamber embracing half or more of the earlier chambers with one to four prominent, circular, secondary apertures (commonly 3) mainly bordered by a marked rim; early chambers coiled in a low and rather short trochospire, separated by poorly visible sutures that become slightly more distinct and slightly depressed in the adult. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Size: The size of specimens is highly variable. Diameter may be up to 0.55 mm, however much smaller specimens are common especially in mid latitudes. In smaller morphotypes, the hemispherical last chamber shows much smaller or even poorly visible secondary apertures. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Circularchamber arrangement:Envelopingedge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Biapertural
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thick lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Absentperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:N/Awall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Weakly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.0-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta is common in low latitudes, with well developed large specimens, and extends to temperate latitudes with smaller specimens. It is absent in high latitudes. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Isotope paleobiology: Oxygen and carbon isotopic data indicate that G. semiinvoluta occupied a mixed layer habitat (Poore and Matthews, 1984; Pearson and others, 2001; Wade and Kroon, 2002, referred to as G. mexicana). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Phylogenetic relations: Blow and Banner (1962) suggested that G. semiinvoluta evolved from G. tropicalis, a relationship that is not supported here. In the western North Atlantic (ODP Site 1052), G. semiinvoluta appears to descend from G. mexicana, a phylogeny also proposed by Bolli (1972) and Blow (1979). The distinct rimmed apertures and less depressed sutures developed in the upper middle Eocene to lower upper Eocene with transitional forms evident in uppermost E13 to lowermost E14. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinatheka mexicana - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta evolved in the latest middle Eocene. The first forms occur just below the top of Zone E13 and its extinction marks the base of Zone E15. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): at top of E14 zone (100% up, 35.9Ma, in Priabonian stage). Data source: zonal marker (Wade et al. 2011)
First occurrence (base): within E13 zone (37.99-39.97Ma, base in Bartonian stage). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 7 p197


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Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 4-6-2020

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