Globigerinatheka tropicalis

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinatheka -> Globigerinatheka tropicalis
Sister taxa: G. semiinvoluta, G. tropicalis, G. luterbacheri, G. euganea, G. index, G. curryi, G. barri, G. korotkovi, G. kugleri, G. mexicana, G. subconglobata, G. sp.,


Citation: Globigerinatheka tropicalis (Blow & Banner 1962)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerapsis tropicalis
Taxonomic discussion: The specimens illustrated by Subbotina (1953) as G. conglobatus (pl. 14, figs. 2a-5b) are attributable to (or fall within the variability of) G. tropicalis as suggested by Blow and Banner (1962) and followed by Bolli (1972). Even though some of Subbotina’s specimens exhibit a subrectangular outline similar to G. index, they do not possess the high semicircular aperture or the incised sutures typical of the latter species. The specimen illustrated by Subbotina (1953, pl. 13, figs. 19a,b) as G. rubriformis, which has a very low spire and high-arched primary and supplementary apertures, is here considered very similar, if not identical, to G. tropicalis. The specimen illustrated by Jenkins (1971, pl. 21, figs. 633-634) as G. (G.) semiinvoluta appears very similar to G. tropicalis with its low-arched, non-subcircular primary and supplementary apertures and more sub-rectangular test shape. The specimen illustrated by Krasheninnikov and Basov (1983) as Globigerapsis index (pl. 7, fig. 1) due to its outline, appears closer to G. tropicalis, while the specimen of G. aff. tropicalis illustrated by the same authors seems to have a long inner spire, so it is doubtfully attributed to Blow and Banner’s species G. tropicalis. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerapsis tropicalis, Globigerinatheka lindiensis

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Characterized by distinctly depressed sutures, medium low spire and mainly subcircular apertures with rims.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters: The distinctly depressed sutures, medium low spire and mainly subcircular apertures with rims characterize G. tropicalis. Globigerinatheka tropicalis has frequently been confused with G. index. According to Blow and Banner (1962), G. tropicalis differs from G. index in lacking the very thick wall, deeply incised sutures, and heavily granular surface characteristic of G. index. In addition, G. tropicalis exhibits a less compact outline, smaller and less subcircular primary aperture without a thick lip, and more numerous smaller secondary apertures than G. index. Bolli (1972) agreed with Blow and Banner (1962) in including some of his specimens identified as G. index in G. tropicalis. Meanwhile, it is hard to separate Globigerinatheka lindiensis from G. tropicalis, except for the presence of bullae in the former, and in agreement with Bolli (1972), we consider G. lindiensis a junior synonym of G. tropicalis. Blow (1979) considered G. tropicalis as junior synonym of G. mexicana mexicana (p. 825), but in our opinion, these two taxa are not conspecific. Globigerinatheka tropicalis differs from G. semiinvoluta by its less compact test, less embracing final chamber, distinct sutures and mainly high arched apertures. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Wall type: Spinose, cancellate, with slightly funnelled pores, 4.5-5 mm in diameter. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Test globose with a subrectangular to subtriangular, slightly lobate outline; 2 to 3 whorls, coiled initially in a low trochospire, sometimes depressed, composed of about 5 moderately inflated chambers increasing slowly in size as added, then streptospiral in the outer whorl; the last whorl consists of 3 strongly inflated large chambers increasing very rapidly in size with respect to the preceding chambers; penultimate chamber twice as large as the antepenultimate and last chamber constituting one-third to one-half of the entire test, sometimes slightly smaller than the penultimate; last chamber tends to cover most of the earlier surface on umbilical side; sutures distinct, weakly depressed, straight to gently curved in the inner whorls, depressed, straight and radial in the adult; in adult test primary aperture a moderately high to subcircular, medium-sized arch, umbilical at the base of the last chamber, sometimes bordered by a lip and covered by a bulla; two to three subcircular secondary apertures slightly smaller than the primary one located at the base of the last chamber at the junctions of earlier chamber sutures; one secondary aperture may be present in the penultimate chamber. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Size: Dimensions for population range from 0.25 to 0.50 mm. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Biapertural
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Absentperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:N/Awall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Weakly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.0-3.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Jenkins (1971) considered G. tropicalis to be the tropical equivalent of G. index, a taxon that, according to Blow (1969), is largely restricted to cooler water habitat. Bolli (1972) extended the distribution of G. tropicalis to mid latitudes. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Isotope paleobiology: No data available. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Phylogenetic relations: Globigerinatheka tropicalis evolved from G. index. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Similar species:

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinatheka index - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: The appearance of G. tropicalis is poorly constrained; it occurs in the upper middle Eocene (upper Zone E13) and is common in Zone E14. It has been suggested that G. tropicalis is the last globigerinathekid to disappear (see Bolli, 1972). At middle latitudes Nocchi and others (1988) showed that the extinction of G. tropicalis occurs in the latest Eocene at the same level as the extinction of hantkeninids (= Eocene/Oligocene boundary), postdating the disappearance of G. index and Turborotalia cunialensis. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within E14 zone (35.89-37.99Ma, top in Priabonian stage). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1
First occurrence (base): within E13 zone (37.99-39.97Ma, base in Bartonian stage). Data source: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 f7.1

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 7


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Globigerinatheka tropicalis compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 29-9-2020

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