Globigerinoides extremus


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides -> Globigerinoides extremus
Sister taxa: G. elongatus, G. extremus, G. conglobatus, G. eoconglobatus, G. obliquus, G. altiaperturus, G. joli, G. neoparawoodi, G. kennetti, G. bollii, G. italicus, G. ruber, G. mitra, G. seigliei, G. subquadratus, G. diminutus, G. bulloideus, G. sp.,

Taxonomy

Citation: Globigerinoides extremus Bolli & Bermudez 1965
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerinoides obliquus extremus Bolli & Bermudez 1965

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides obliquus extremus

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Strongly obliquely compressed & flattened final chamber.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.

Description


Diagnostic characters: Medium to high trochospiral, final whorl distinctly compressed

Aperture: Primary aperture interiomarginal umbilical distinct arch of medium height. Supplementary sutural apertures on spiral side [Aze 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]


Wall type: Spinose; Cancellate [Aze 2011]

Test morphology: Test medium to high trochospire, all chambers of the final whorl distinctly compressed, the four chambers of the final whorl increasing regularly in size as added, but the last one may be somewhat reduced and distinctly flattened ; sutures on both sides radial to slightly curved and depressed; sur- face distinctly pitted, primary aperture interiomarginal, umbilical, a distinct arch of medium height; chambers of the final whorl with one supplementary aperture opposite the primary one. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Moderate-highperiphery:N/Aaperture border:N/A
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology


Geographic distribution: Tropical to cool subtropical. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983] Low latitudes [Aze et al. 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)]

[SCOR WG138]


Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy ∂13C and relatively light ∂18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Keller (1985)

Phylogenetic relations: Gs. extremus evolved from Gs. obliquus by developing laterally compressed chambers in the final whorl and a distinctly flattened final chamber. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinoides obliquus - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, fig. 9, p. 58.
Likely descendants: Globigerinoides elongatus;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): in upper part of PL6 [Atl.] zone (78% up, 2Ma, in Gelasian stage). Data source: Wade et al. (2011), additional event; position within zone determined by linear interpolation from data in table 1 of Wade et al. (2011).
First occurrence (base): in upper part of M13a subzone (73% up, 8.9Ma, in Tortonian stage). Data source: Wade et al. (2011), additional event; position within zone determined by linear interpolation from data in table 1 of Wade et al. (2011).

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.58

References:

Aze, T. et al. (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews. 86: 900-927. gs

Bolli, H. M. & Bermudez, P. J. (1965). Zonation based on planktonic foraminifera of middle Miocene to Pliocene warm-water sediments. Bol. Informativo, Asoc. Venez. Geol., Min. Petrol.. 8(5): 121-149. gs

Keller, G. (1985). Depth stratification of planktonic foraminifers in the Miocene Ocean. In, Kennett, J. P. (ed.) The Miocene Ocean: Paleoceanography and Biogeography. GSA Memoir. 163: 1-337. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Norris, R. D. (1998). Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy: Eastern Equatorial Atlantic. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 159: 445-479. gs

Postuma, J. A. (1971). Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Elsevier for Shell Group, The Hague. 1-406. gs


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Globigerinoides extremus compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 14-11-2019

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