Globigerinoides subquadratus

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides -> Globigerinoides subquadratus
Sister taxa: G. elongatus, G. extremus, G. conglobatus, G. eoconglobatus, G. obliquus, G. altiaperturus, G. joli, G. neoparawoodi, G. kennetti, G. bollii, G. italicus, G. ruber, G. mitra, G. seigliei, G. subquadratus, G. diminutus, G. bulloideus, G. sp.,


Citation: Globigerinoides subquadratus Brönnimann, in Todd et al. 1954
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerinoides subquadratus
Synonyms: [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]
Taxonomic discussion:

Brönnimann and Todd (1954) documented this species in sediments attributed to the Chattian, however, he reported “Globigerinoidesbisphericus, and Globigerinatella insueta as accompanying species, therefore the assemblage he investigated contains species of different Miocene ages and can be attributed to the lower Miocene Zone M3-M4. This species is often considered as a homeomorph of G. ruber (Chaisson and Leckie, 1993; Pearson and others, 1997), however, it is distinguished from G. ruber, in having a more quadrangular outline and a ruber/sacculifer-type wall texture. At the beginning of its range it has one very small supplementary aperture on the suture between the last and the penultimate chambers, younger specimens may have a second and small supplementary aperture over the suture between the penultimate and the antepenultimate chamber, which is visible also in edge views (Plate 9.7, Figs. 7-9). By combining data from the fossil record with molecular phylogeny and the molecular clock, Aurahs and others (2011) demonstrated that the G. ruber lineage originated and diversified in the late Miocene, and therefore, all earlier documentation of G. ruber refer to the distinct G. subquadratus lineage.

[Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides subquadrata

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Like G. ruber but subquadrate. Prominent supplementary apertures

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters:

Globigerinoides subquadratus differs from its descendant G. ruber by its less lobate and more quadrangular profile and by the less developed supplementary apertures. It differs from all other Globigerinoides by its subquadrangular and compact test and by having only 3½ chambers in the last whorl.

[Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Wall type: Normal perforate, spinose, ruber/sacculifer-type wall. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Test morphology: Low trochospiral, consisting of about 3½ whorls, subquadrate outline, with three, subglobular slightly compressed tending to subreniform chambers in the last whorl increasing rapidly in size. The last chamber is about half of the entire test, and placed perpendicularly to the last two chambers. Sutures depressed and straight on the umbilical side, straight to slightly arched on the spiral side. Primary aperture symmetrically positioned over the sutures before the penultimate and antepenultimate chambers is a high umbilical arch very often bordered by a pustulose rim. One to two very small and rounded supplementary apertures are present on the spiral side. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum length of holotype 0.58 mm. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Subquadratechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Low-moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Strongly depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.5-3.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Globigerinoides subquadratus is characteristic of low to middle latitudes, abundant in the Caribbean region (Brönnimann and Todd, 1954). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: Isotopic data indicate a similar depth habitat for G. subquadratus and G. ruber (Pearson and others, 1997), which is one of the shallowest dwelling species of all planktonic foraminifera (Emiliani, 1971; Fairbanks and others, 1982; Ravelo and Fairbanks, 1992). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: Globigerinoides subquadratus probably originated from G. italicus at the top of Subzone M1a. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]
This species evolved from Globigerina (Zeaglobigerina) brazieri in the Early Miocene warm subtropical in South Pacific by developing sutural supplementary apertures (Srinivasan and Kennett, 1981). [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Most likely ancestor: Globigerinoides italicus - at confidence level 2 (out of 5). Data source: Spezzaferri et al. 2018.
Likely descendants: Globigerinoides diminutus; Globigerinoides mitra; Globigerinoides ruber;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Upper part of Subzone M1a (Spezzaferri, 1994) up to the Globorotalia fohsi Zone (M9) [Spezzaferri et al. 2018] Wade et al. (2011) place the top of G. subquadratus at the base of M11 following Turco et al. (2002) and Hilgen et al. (2000) [editor's comment - JRY 2018]
Last occurrence (top): near base of M11 zone (9% up, 11.5Ma, in Tortonian stage). Data source: Wade et al. (2011), additional event; position within zone determined by linear interpolation from data in table 1 of Wade et al. (2011).
First occurrence (base): within M1a subzone (22.44-22.96Ma, base in Aquitanian stage). Data source: Spezzaferri et al. 2018

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Spezzaferri et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.9 p.286; Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.74


Aurahs, R., Treis, Y., Darling, K. & Kucera, M. (2011). A revised taxonomic and phylogenetic concept for the planktonic foraminifer species Globigerinoides ruber based on molecular and morphometric evidence. Marine Micropaleontology. 79: 1-14. gs :: ::

Aze, T. et al. (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews. 86: 900-927. gs :: ::

Bolli, H. M. & Saunders, J. B. (1985). Oligocene to Holocene low latitude planktic foraminifera. In, Bolli, H. M. , Saunders, J. B. & Perch-Neilsen, K. (eds) Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK 155-262. gs :: ::

Brönnimann, P. & Todd, R. (1954). Appendix Descriptions of new species, in Todd, R., Cloud, P.E., Low, D., Schmidt, R.G. (eds.), Probable occurrence of Oligocene on Saipan. American Journal of Science. 252: 673-682. gs :: ::

Chaisson, W. P. & Leckie, R. M. (1993). High-resolution Neogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of Site 806, Ontong Java Plateau (Western Equatorial Pacific). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 130: 137-178. gs :: ::

Emiliani, C. (1971). Depth habitat of growth stages of pelagic foraminifera. Science. 252: 149-158. gs :: ::

Fairbanks, R. G., Sverdlove, M., Free, R., Wiebe, P. H. & Bé, A. W. H. (1982). Vertical distribution and isotopic fractionation of living planktonic foraminifera from the Panama Basin. Nature. 841: 841-844. gs :: ::

Fox, L. R. & Wade, B. S. (2013). Systematic taxonomy of early–middle Miocene planktonic foraminifera from the equatorial Pacific Ocean: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Site U1338. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 43: 374-405. gs :: ::

Keller, G. (1985). Depth stratification of planktonic foraminifers in the Miocene Ocean. In, Kennett, J. P. (ed.) The Miocene Ocean: Paleoceanography and Biogeography. GSA Memoir. 163: 1-337. gs :: ::

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs :: ::

Norris, R. D. (1998). Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy: Eastern Equatorial Atlantic. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 159: 445-479. gs :: ::

Pearson, P. N., Shackleton, N. J., Weedon, G. P. & Hall, M. A. (1997b). Multispecies planktonic foraminifer stable isotope stratigraphy through Oligocene/Miocene boundary climatic cycles, Site 926. 154, 441-450. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 154: 441-450. gs :: ::

Postuma, J. A. (1971). Manual of planktonic foraminifera. Elsevier for Shell Group, The Hague. 1-406. gs :: ::

Ravelo, A. C. & Fairbanks, R. G. (1992). Oxygen isotopic composition of multiple species of planktonic foraminifera: recorders of the modern photic zone temperature gradient. Paleoceanography. 7: 815-831. gs :: ::

Spezzaferri, S. (1994). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and taxonomy of the Oligocene and lower Miocene in the oceanic record. An overview. Palaeontographia Italica. 81: 1-187. gs :: ::

Spezzaferri, S., Olsson, R. K. & Hemleben, C. (2018b). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene to Lower Miocene Globigerinoides and Trilobatus. In, Wade, B. S. , Olsson, R. K. , Pearson, P. N. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 9): 269-306. gs :: ::

Srinivasan, M. S. & Kennett, J. P. (1981b). Neogene planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and evolution: equatorial to subantarctic, south Pacific. Marine Micropaleontology. 6: 499-533. gs :: ::

Todd, R., Cloud, P. E., Low, D. & Schmidt, R. G. (1954). Probable occurrence of Oligocene in Saipan. American Journal of Science. 252: 673-682. gs :: ::

Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., Berggren, W. A. & Pälike, H. (2011). Review and revision of Cenozoic tropical planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and calibration to the geomagnetic polarity and astronomical time scale. Earth-Science Reviews. 104: 111-142. gs :: ::


Globigerinoides subquadratus compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 6-7-2020

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