Globorotaloides stainforthi

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globorotaloides -> Globorotaloides stainforthi
Sister taxa: G. atlanticus, G. stainforthi, G. eovariabilis, G. hexagonus, G. quadrocameratus, G. suteri, G. testarugosus, G. variabilis, G. sp.,


Citation: Globorotaloides stainforthi (Bolli, Loeblich, and Tappan, 1957)
Rank: species
Basionym: Catapsydrax stainforthi Bolli, Loeblich, and Tappan, 1957)
Taxonomic discussion:

Globorotaloides stainforthi is the nominate marker for Bolli’s (1957) lower Miocene ‘Catapsydrax’ stainforthi Concurrent range zone, which was defined as the interval containing the nominate taxon from the lowest occurrence of Globigerinatella insueta to the highest occurrence of Catapsydrax dissimilis. These limits now define the top of Zone M3 (base of Zone M4) of Berggren and others (1995). This zone has limited application because the species is relatively rare. Biogeographic distribution patterns suggest G. stainforthi to be an indicator of Oligocene to Miocene upwelling (Spezzaferri, 1995). Tenuitellinata praestainforthi (Blow, 1969), which also has a bulla and accessory apertures, has a microperforate wall and is thus unrelated to Globorotaloides stainforthi. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Catalog entries: Catapsydrax stainforthi

Type images:

Distinguishing features:

Test very low trochospiral, lobate; 4-5 chambers in the final whorl; umbilicus covered by a flattened bulla extending to the equatorial periphery with 3-5 small, rimmed, infralaminal accessory apertures, opening over sutures. 

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters:

Globorotaloides stainforthi is distinguished from Catapsydrax dissimilis by having a more compressed test, more chambers in the final whorl (4½-5 compared with 4 in C. dissimilis), the umbilical to extraumbilical position of the primary aperture and the morphology of the bulla, which extends further towards the equatorial periphery than in C. dissimilis and usually has more apertures. It differs from bullate forms of Globorotaloides eovariabilis by the larger size and multiple infralaminal apertures. It is distinguished from Globorotaloides atlanticus primarily by having fewer chambers in the final whorl (typically 5 in stainforthi compared to 5½ in atlanticus). The bulla in G. atlanticus also extends around the equatorial periphery whereas in stainforthi the bulla is restricted to the umbilical area. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Wall type: Normal perforate, coarsely cancellate, spinose (?), ruber/sacculifer-type wall structure.

Test morphology: Test very low trochospiral, lobate in outline; axial periphery rounded, 2-2½ whorls, 10-11 chambers, 4-5 subglobular to ovate chambers in the final whorl increasing gradually in size, sutures slightly curved in umbilical view; in spiral view, relatively flattened inner whorl, sutures straight; primary aperture umbilical-extraumbilical, umbilicus covered by a flattened bulla extending to the equatorial periphery with 3-5 small, rimmed, infralaminal accessory apertures, opening over sutures of the final whorl. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Size: Greatest diameter of holotype 0.36 mm; thickness 0.26 mm. Paratypes range from 0.26 to 0.42 mm in diameter. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Bulla
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Infralaminal
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-5.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Low latitudes, equatorial. Affinity with high productivity conditions (Spezzaferri, 1995). [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: Relatively high δ18O and low δ13C compared to other planktonic foraminiferal species suggesting that Globorotaloides stainforthi preferred sub-thermocline waters similar to Catapsydrax and other species of Globorotaloides (Poore and Matthews, 1984). [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: Globorotaloides stainforthi probably evolved from Globorotaloides variabilis. It gave rise to a series of bullate forms including Globorotaloides atlanticus n. sp., which was ancestral to the quasi-clavate pseudoplanispiral genus Protentelloides. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Similar species:

Most likely ancestor: Globorotaloides variabilis - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018.
Likely descendants: Globorotaloides atlanticus;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Lower Oligocene Zone O4, determined at Atlantic and Indian Ocean sites (Spezzaferri, 1994) to lower Miocene Zone N7 (M4) (Quilty, 1976). [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within N7 zone (16.38-17.54Ma, top in Burdigalian stage). Data source: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018
First occurrence (base): within O4 zone (28.09-29.18Ma, base in Rupelian stage). Data source: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.4 p.105


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Bolli, H. M. (1957b). Planktonic foraminifera from the Oligocene-Miocene Cipero and Lengua formations of Trinidad, B.W.I. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr. , Tappan, H. , Beckmann, J. P. , Bolli, H. M. , Montanaro Gallitelli & E. Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 97-123. gs V O

Bolli, H. M., Loeblich, A. R. & Tappan, H. (1957). Planktonic foraminiferal families Hantkeninidae, Orbulinidae, Globorotaliidae and Globotruncanidae. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr. , Tappan, H. , Beckmann, J. P. , Bolli, H. M. , Montanaro Gallitelli, E. & Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 3-50. gs V O

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Poore, R. Z. & Matthews, R. K. (1984). Oxygen isotope ranking of late Eocene and Oligocene planktonic foraminifers: implications for Oligocene sea-surface temperatures and global ice-volume. Marine Micropaleontology. 9: 111-134. gs

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Quilty, P. G. (1976). Planktonic foraminifera DSDP Leg 34, Nazca Plate. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 34: 629-703. gs V O

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Spezzaferri, S. (1995). Planktonic foraminiferal paleoclimatic implications across the Oligocene-Miocene transition in the oceanic record (Atlantic, Indian, and South Pacific). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 114: 43-74. gs


Globorotaloides stainforthi compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 20-9-2020

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