Globorotaloides suteri

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globorotaloides -> Globorotaloides suteri
Sister taxa: G. atlanticus, G. stainforthi, G. eovariabilis, G. hexagonus, G. quadrocameratus, G. suteri, G. testarugosus, G. variabilis, G. sp.,


Citation: Globorotaloides suteri Bolli, 1957
Rank: species
Basionym: Globorotaloides suteri Bolli, 1957
Taxonomic discussion:

An important aspect of our revised taxonomy is the resurrection of Globorotaloides suteri Bolli 1957. In the Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Globorotaloides suteri was considered a junior synonym of Catapsydrax unicavus (Olsson and others, 2006a) based on similarities between the available holotype SEM images. This, however, would leave a range of four-chambered forms of Globorotaloides that do not fit in G. quadrocameratus, without a name. New SEM and reflected light microscope images (Pl. 4.9, Figs. 1-3, 5-7) made after cleaning of the G. suteri holotype (removal of gum tragacanth layers, B. Huber) reveals a typical Globorotaloides morphology comprising a flattened Globorotalia-like inner whorl. This feature is also visible in spiral views of the four paratypes of G. suteri. Based on this new evidence we here reinstate Globorotaloides suteri as a compact, four-chambered form that may or may not possess a bulla (see Plates 4.9 and 4.10, respectively). Applying the revised definition of the taxon, we retain two of Bolli’s G. suteri paratypes in G. suteri (Bolli 1957: pl. 27, figs. 9a-c, USNM P5655a and pl. 27, figs. 11a-b, USNM P5655c), while the other two have been reclassified as Globorotaloides eovariabilis (Bolli, 1957:117, pl. 27, figs. 10a-b, USNM P5655b and pl. 27, figs. 12a-b, USNM P5655d) because they have more evolute coiling and 5 chambers in the final whorl. Globorotaloides suteri is the most common Oligocene to Miocene Globorotaloides morphotype. This is consistent with Bolli’s original concept of the holotype and its subsequent usage (see extensive synonym list), although narrower in the sense that we include only four chambered forms. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Catalog entries: Globorotaloides suteri

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Test low trochospiral, lobulate, axial periphery rounded; 4 to 5 chambers in final whorl; aperture a low arch, often covered by bulla-like final chamber.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters:

Globorotaloides suteri is distinguished from Globorotaloides quadrocameratus by the more compact coiling, more gradually enlarging and radial flattening of the final whorl (especially the final chamber) and less lobate peripheral outline. It differs from Catapsydrax unicavus in having 4 chambers in the final whorl compared to 3 or 3½ in C. unicavus. It differs from Globorotaloides eovariabilis in having only 4 chambers in the final whorl and from Globorotaloides testarugosus in radial orientation of the spiral sutures and more lobed peripheral outline. Bullate and non-bullate varieties occur, when bullate having a single infralaminal aperture. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Wall type: Nonspinose (?). Normal perforate, coarsely cancellate, sacculifer-type wall texture, with a distinctly honeycomb appearance. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Test morphology: Low trochospiral, equatorial periphery lobate, axial periphery rounded; chambers ovate to spherical, 11-14, arranged in 2-2½ whorls, 3½-4 chambers in the final whorl increasing gradually in size; spiral view reveals flattened ‘globorotalid’ inner whorl, spiral sutures slightly curved, radial, depressed; umbilical sutures straight, radial, depressed, umbilicus small, open in some specimens, in others (including the holotype) completely or partially covered by a bulla extending from the equatorial margin; primary aperture a low interiomarginal umbilical-extraumbilical arch surrounded by beak-like lip, infralaminal aperture slit-like and bordered by a lip. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Size: Holotype maximum diameter 0.35 mm. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Bulla
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Infralaminal
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.5-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Distribution is global, including low and mid-latitudes. It can be common in southern and northern high latitudes regions. It shows affinities with high productivity conditions. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: Relatively high δ18O and low δ13C compared to other species suggest that Globorotaloides suteri occupied a sub-thermocline planktonic habitat similar to Catapsydrax (Poore and Matthews, 1984; Barrera and Huber, 1991; Coxall, unpublished). The middle Eocene morphotype recorded as ‘Globorotaloides sp. 1’, by Sexton and others (2006), and which we here assign to G. suteri, similarly shows δ18O and low δ13C indicative of a thermocline habitat. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: Globorotaloides suteri probably evolved from Globorotaloides quadrocameratus. [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]

Gd. suteri
differs from Gd. variabilis in having more inflated early chambers and less curved sutures. Bolli (1957) considered Gd. suteri to be the ancestor of Gd. variabilis. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Similar species:

Most likely ancestor: Globorotaloides quadrocameratus - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018 p.111.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Middle Eocene Zone AP10 (Huber, 1991) (=AE7 Huber and Quillévéré, 2005) to lower-middle Miocene Zone N8 (Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983) (Zone M5 of Wade and others, 2011). [Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within M10 zone (11.63-11.79Ma, top in Serravallian stage). Data source: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018
First occurrence (base): within Middle Eocene Sub-Epoch (37.75-47.84Ma, base in Lutetian stage). Data source: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Coxall & Spezzaferri 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.4 p.107; Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.214


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Globorotaloides suteri compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 19-9-2020

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