Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Globoturborotalita
Sister taxa: Beella, Globigerina, Globigerinella, Protentella, Quiltyella, Ciperoella, Globigerinoides, Globigerinoidesella, Globoturborotalita, Orbulina, Praeorbulina, Sphaeroidinella, Sphaeroidinellopsis, Trilobatus, Turborotalita, Dentoglobigerina, Globoquadrina, Catapsydrax, Clavatorella, Paragloborotalia, Protentelloides, Eoglobigerina, Globigerinatheka, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Orbulinoides, Parasubbotina, Pseudoglobigerinella, Subbotina,
Daughter taxa: - species order by first occurrence (blue => in age window 0-800Ma)
decoraperta->rubescens->tenella lineage
Like G. rubescens but with a small, supplementary aperture.
Like G. decoraperta but very small and with small circular aperture.
Like G. woodi but higher-spired test
woodi and descendants, mostly Neogene
Like G. woodi but with very large aperture
Like G. woodi but compact test and more highly arched aperture
Small, compact test, with coarse-pitted surface, and small, rimmed, aperture
Like G. druryi but with protruding thumb-shaped final chamber

Chambers symmetrically arranged around the umbilicus, with large, symmetrical, rounded umbilical aperture. Wall coarsely cancellate, low porosity.

cancellata and descendants, mostly Oligocene

Low trochospiral, globular, 3½-4 chambers in final whorl, increasing rapidly in size. The last chamber forms ca. ⅓ of the test. Umbilicus large, open. Aperture umbilical, a low rounded arch, with a thin rim

Like G. cancellata but with more lobulate profile; 3½-4 well-developed chambers in the last whorl.

Like G. cancellata but only 3½ chambers in the final whorl and final chamber forms about ½ the test. 

Lobulate test with 4 rapidly enlarging chambers in final whorl, large open umbilicus, and umbilical aperture. Like G. occlusa but higher aperture and less embracing chambers

other species -mostly Paleogene
Similar to G. ouachitaensis but with barbules, (conical spikes) in the sutural regions
Test small, 4 globular, slightly embracing chambers in final whorl. Aperture umbilical with prominent lip, wall cancellate.
Like G. woodi but subquadrate test and aperture placed directly opposite the suture line

Like G. bassriverensis but with more compact form and a thickened apertural rim.

4 wedge-like chambers in the final whorl, last chamber reniform; aperture broad & low, confined to the umbilicus; sutures deeply incised.

Test small, lobulate, with slightly embracing, globular chambers. Aperture large, umbilical. Wall texture cancellate.

Like G. eolabiacrassata but with more lobulate profile and higher arched aperture.

Test small, 4 globular, slightly embracing, chambers in final whorl, reduced final chamber extends over and partially covers the umbilicus. Wall texture, spinose, cancellate sacculifer-type.
Test small, 4 globular, slightly embracing, chambers in final whorl. Aperture umbilical; wall texture cancellate, spinose.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species


Citation: Globoturborotalita Hofker, 1976
Rank: Genus
Type species: Globigerina rubescens Hofker, 1956
Taxonomic discussion: Kennett & Srinivasan (1983) proposed a new subgenus Zeaglobigerina for Neogene Globigerina species with a cancellate wall. This concept is now standard but the name Globoturborotalita Hofker 1976 is used as it is a senior synonym.
The genus is strongly paraphyletic giving rise to Globigerinioides, Trilobatus (and thus Orbulina), Turborotalita, and Sphaeroidinella according to the phylogeny of Aze et al. 2011. [my interpretation - JRY 2018]

Includes species characterized by a cancellate surface with regular subhexagonal pore pits with pores at the centers (Pi. 4, Fig. 2). Thus, the surface of Globoturborotalita appears distinctly cancellate in contrast to the hispid appearance of Globigerina. Although the surface ultrastructure of Globoturborotalita is similar to Globigerinoides saccullfer, which is spinose during life, no indication of spines or spine bases was observed in Globoturborotalita species. We consider that the genus Globoturborotalita is the ancestor of Globigerinoides sacculifer, which evolved via Globoturborotalita connecta and Globigerinoides triloba. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983 - but with references to Globigerina (Zeaglobigerina) changed to Globoturborotalita]

In the description of this genus, Hofker (1976) and Olsson and others (2006) included only forms with 4-5 chambers in the last whorl. Spezzaferri and others (2015) amended the genus to include also 3-3½ chambered forms such as G. connecta. Olsson and others (2006) discussed the taxonomic connection and synonymy between Kennett and Srinivasan’s (1983) genus Zeaglobigerina and Globoturborotalita. Olsson and others (2006) also included in the genus Globoturborotalita anguliofficinalis, which is now placed in the new genus Ciperoella based on the wall texture and possession of 4 ½-5 chambers in the final whorl (Chapter 7, this volume). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Hofker (1976) designated his genus Globoturborotalita, described from Holocene sediments, as characteristic of his new family Turborotalitidae. He recognized that this genus is spinose, a morphologic character that ultimately led to Turborotalitidae being placed in synonomy within Globigerinidae (Loeblich and Tappan, 1988). At the time Globoturborotalita was described, only one species was known, G. rubescens, the type species. One of the distinguishing features of Holocene G. rubescens is its pink to red pigmentation, a color that is not readily preserved in the fossil record. Hofker emphasized the coarsely cancellate wall texture and spines of this species. The cancellate spinose wall distinguishes Globoturborotalita from Globigerina.
Kennett and Srinivasan (1983) named Zeaglobigerina (type species Globigerina woodi Jenkins) but included rubescens within the genus, thus making their genus a junior synonym of Hofker’s, providing the phylogenetic linkage between woodi and rubescens is upheld.
Loeblich and Tappan (1988) gave a geologic range of Oligocene to Recent for Globoturborotalita. McGowran and Li (1993) placed Miocene planktonic foraminifera of southern Australia in five morphogroups based on wall texture (cancellate, cancellate-spinose, spinose, smooth-walled, and microperforate). Several species that they included in Globoturborotalita and that are common in the Oligocene, such as G. anguliofficinalis and G. gnaucki, first occur in the Eocene, thus extending the known range of this genus into the Eocene. Our own observations, reported here, indicate that the origin of Globoturborotalita was at the base of Zone E1 and was associated with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and the carbon isotope excursion (CIE). A new species is described from this level, Globoturborotalita bassriverensis n. sp. Globoturborotalita in the Paleogene, as in the Neogene, is represented by small forms that are easily overlooked, but they can be recognized in well-preserved material.
Globoturborotalita probably evolved from Subbotina. The limited stable isotope data currently available for the genus suggests that unlike Subbotina, most taxa of Globoturborotalita were surface mixed layer dwelling forms.
[Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globoturborotalita, Globigerina (Zeaglobigerina)

Distinguishing features: Trochospiral test with a single, large, open umbilical aperture. Cancellate wall. 4-4½ chambers in final whorl

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters: A globular test, slightly embracing chambers, umbilical aperture, and coarse cancellate wall texture characterize the genus. See Olsson and others (2006) for discussion of Eocene species of Globoturborotalita. See Spezzaferri and others (2015) for discussion and emendation of the genus . Globoturborotalita is distinguished from Ciperoella because the latter has a spinose Neogloboquadrina-type wall (Chapters 3 and 7, this volume) in contrast to the ruber/sacculifer- and sacculifer-type wall in Globoturborotalita. Globoturborotalita is distinguished from Subbotina first by the wall texture, which is described as cancellate with both symmetrical and slightly asymmetrical patterning of pores and interpore ridges, compared to the more strongly cancellate and symmetrically oriented (honeycomb structure) of Subbotina. Species of Globoturborotalita are also generally smaller, have fewer less embracing chambers and a more symmetrical aperture than subbotinids (Olsson and others, 2006; Chapter 10, this volume). The only exception is G. connecta, which displays compact coiling and a slightly asymmetrical, umbilical-extraumbilical aperture. Globigerina differs from Globoturborotalita by the wall texture, which in Globigerina is characterized by spines supported by distinctive spine collars coalescing to form ridges (Olsson and others, 2006; Chapters 3 and 6, this volume). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Wall type: Cancellate, normal perforate, spinose, ruber/sacculifer-type and sacculifer-type wall texture. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Test morphology: Test moderately low to medium trochospiral, globular, lobulate in outline, chambers globular; in spiral view 3-5 slightly embracing globular chambers increasing moderately in size in the last whorl, in umbilical view 3-5 globular, slightly embracing chambers, increasing moderately in size, sutures depressed and straight on both sides, the umbilicus is generally small, open, enclosed by surrounding chambers, in some species it can be larger, the aperture is umbilical, low to a very high rounded arch, bordered by a thin lip, rarely by a thickened rim; in edge view chambers are globular in shape, slightly embracing, and the umbilical aperture may be partly visible. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter generally less than 0.20 mm. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Species of Globoturborotalita are cosmopolitan in the Oligocene including at both high southern (Southern Ocean/New Zealand) and high northern (Labrador Sea, and the North Sea region) latitudes. They can be common especially in the <250 μm fraction. Some species appear to be more abundant at high southern latitudes and the Austral realm. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology:

Phylogenetic relations: The genus evolved in Zone E1 from Subbotina hornibrooki (Olsson and others, 2006) and gave rise to the genera Trilobatus in upper Oligocene Zone O7 and to Globigerinoides in basal Miocene Zone M1 (Spezzaferri and others, 2015). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Similar species:

Most likely ancestor: Subbotina - at confidence level 0 (out of 5). Data source: .
Likely descendants: Ciperoella; Globigerinoides; Trilobatus; Turborotalita;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: E1 to Recent. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): at base of Ypresian Stage (0% up, 56Ma, in Ypresian stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Spezzaferri et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.8 p.223 (major revision of Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 6 p. 115); Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983 p. 42


Aze, T. et al. (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews. 86: 900-927. gs

Bolli, H. M. (1957b). Planktonic foraminifera from the Oligocene-Miocene Cipero and Lengua formations of Trinidad, B.W.I. In, Loeblich, A. R. , Jr. , Tappan, H. , Beckmann, J. P. , Bolli, H. M. , Montanaro Gallitelli & E. Troelsen, J. C. (eds) Studies in Foraminifera. U.S. National Museum Bulletin. 215: 97-123. gs V O

Hofker, J. (1956c). Foraminifera of Santa Cruz and Thatch-Island, Virginia-Archipelago West-Indies. Copenhagen Univ. Zool. Mus. Spolia (Skrifler). 15: 1-237. gs

Hofker, J. (1976). La famille Turborotalitidae. Revue de Micropaléontologie. 19: 47-53. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Loeblich, A. R. & Tappan, H. (1988). Foraminiferal Genera and Their Classification (Volume I-II). Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York. 1-1059. gs

McGowran, B. & Li, Q. (1993). Miocene planktonic foraminifera from Lakes Entrance in Gippsland: midlatitude neritic signal from a transforming ocean. Memoir of the Association of Australian Palaeontologists. 15: 395-405. gs

Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N. & Huber, B. T. (2006c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In, Pearson, P. N. , Olsson, R. K. , Hemleben, C. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 5): 67-110. gs V O

Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (2006a). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Globigerina, Globoturborotalita, Subbotina, and Turborotalita. In, Pearson, P. N. , Olsson, R. K. , Hemleben, C. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 6): 111-168. gs V O

Spezzaferri, S. et al. (2015). Fossil and genetic evidence for the polyphyletic nature of the planktonic foraminifera "Globigerinoides", and description of the new genus Trilobatus. PLoS One. 1-20. gs V O


Globoturborotalita compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 19-9-2020

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