Paragloborotalia mayeri

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Paragloborotalia -> Paragloborotalia mayeri
Sister taxa: P. acrostoma, P. incognita, P. pseudocontinuosa, P. semivera, P. kugleri, P. pseudokugleri, P. mayeri, P. siakensis, P. birnageae, P. continuosa, P. opima, P. nana, P. griffinoides, P. sp.,


Citation: Paragloborotalia mayeri (Cushman and Ellisor, 1939)
Rank: species
Basionym: Globorotalia mayeri Cushman and Ellisor, 1939
Taxonomic discussion:

Bolli and Saunders (1982a, 1985) wrote extensively about the distinction between mayeri and siakensis, and concluded that the two taxa, both named in 1939, are synonymous, with mayeri having priority (Bolli and Saunders, 1982b). We reject this synonymy here. Zachariasse and Sudijono (2012) argued the two taxa could not be synonymised as P. mayeri has curved spiral-side sutures, while P. siakensis possesses straight sutures. Interestingly, these curved sutures are not included in the original type description as a distinguishing feature (Cushman and Ellisor, 1939). A lack of spinosity in P. mayeri (Hilgen and others, 2000; Zachariasse and Sudijono, 2012), and a wider, deeper umbilicus in P. siakensis (Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983) have also been suggested as means of differentiation. Paragloborotalia siakensis is the ancestral form derived directly from P. nana.

Low latitude early and middle Miocene assemblages contain specimens of the mayeri-siakensis plexus with all manner of variability and transitional specimens in terms of spiral suture orientation, relative lobateness of the test outline, and height of the arched aperture, suggesting that the two forms are very closely related (e.g., Bolli and Saunders, 1982a; Zachariasse and Sudijono, 2012). In this study, specimens illustrated by Bolli and Saunders (1982a) with radial sutures are assigned to siakensis, while those with curved spiral sutures are here assigned to mayeri. Paragloborotalia mayeri is a more evolved form of P. siakensis; several Paragloborotalia lineages have straight spiral sutures in the Oligocene that become curved in the latest Oligocene and early Miocene (siakensis to mayeri; pseudocontinuosa to acrostoma; pseudokugleri to kugleri), and then become increasingly curved to crescentic as they gave rise to Fohsella and Globoconella. Both P. mayeri and P. siakensis have the same last occurrence in the early late Miocene (10.53 Ma; Wade and others, 2011; also see Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Berggren and others, 1995) further supporting the close relationship of the two forms.

The paratype assigned to P. mayeri by Blow and Banner has been reassigned to Fohsella? peripheroronda (Bolli and Saunders, 1982a; Zachariasse and Sudijono, 2012). We reject Hoskins’ (1984) proposed synonymy of G. pseudocontinuosa, G. semivera, G. continuosa, and G. mayeri nympha with G. mayeri for the reasons outlined above.

Zachariasse and Sudijono (2012) suggested that Globorotalia partimlabiata Ruggieri and Sprovieri is synonymous with P. mayeri, although we note the more flattened dorsal side of partimlabiata and resultant asymmetrical shape of the final chamber in axial (edge) view. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Catalog entries: Globorotalia mayeri

Type images:

Distinguishing features:

Like P. siakensis but with slightly curved spiral sutures and generally higher arched aperture, and less strongly developed lip.


NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters:

The holotype of P. mayeri lacks a prominent lip but appears to have an imperforate rim bordering the aperture. In their original description of Globorotalia mayeri, Cushman and Ellisor (1939) noted the presence of a slight lip. Paragloborotalia mayeri and P. siakensis bear close similarities and both species were originally described as having about six chambers in the final whorl, depressed sutures, a moderately high arched umbilical to extraumbilical aperture with a distinctive lip, and a distinctly rounded peripheral margin (Cushman and Ellisor, 1939; LeRoy, 1939). These close similarities, led to the suggestion that P. siakensis is a junior synonym of P. mayeri (Bolli and Saunders, 1982a, b). While some authors have followed this synonymy (e.g., Bolli and Saunders, 1985; Chaisson and Leckie, 1993; Pearson, 1995; Hilgen and others, 2000), others have differentiated between the two taxa (e.g., Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Premoli Silva and Spezzaferri, 1990 Spezzaferri, 1994; Hilgen and others, 2003; Stewart and others, 2004; Pearson and Wade, 2009). Paragloborotalia mayeri is distinguished from P. siakensis by its slightly curved spiral sutures and generally higher arched aperture, and less strongly developed lip.

Paragloborotalia mayeri is distinguished from P. semivera in having a flatter spiral side, more rapid rate of chamber expansion and ovate equatorial outline, wider, more open umbilicus, and generally greater number of chambers in the final whorl (typically 6 in mayeri compared with 5 in semivera). It is distinguished from acrostoma by its flatter spiral side, wider umbilicus, generally greater number of chambers in the final whorl (typically 6 compared with 5), and more extraumbilical aperture. Paragloborotalia mayeri is distinguished from P. pseudokugleri by its greater rate of chamber expansion and more ovate equatorial outline, and higher arched aperture, and from P. kugleri by its more inflated chambers and lobulate equatorial profile with fewer chambers in the final whorl (typically 6 compared with 7-8 in kugleri), and higher arched aperture. Paragloborotalia mayeri is distinguished from Globorotalia acrostoma partimlabiata by its more spherical chambers and less asymmetrical flattening of the spiral side. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Wall type: Normal perforate, coarsely cancellate, probably sparsely spinose in life, heavy gametogenetic calcification is often present.

Test morphology: Test medium to large in size; low trochospiral, moderately lobulate in equatorial outline, chambers subglobular, inflated, slightly embracing; 5 to typically 6 chambers in the ultimate whorl of late Oligocene forms, up to 7 chambers in early and middle Miocene forms, increasing rapidly in size in initial whorl and slowly in the final whorl; in spiral view chambers subspherical, arranged in 2½-3 whorls, sutures depressed, slightly curved; in umbilical view chambers spherical to subspherical, sutures depressed, radial, umbilicus narrow, moderately deep; aperture umbilical-extraumbilical, moderately high arch, bordered by an imperforate rim or thin lip; in edge view chambers spherical, spiral side flat to slightly convex, umbilical side slightly convex, periphery broadly rounded. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype and other specimens from the type level 0.35-0.40 mm; minimum diameter 0.27-0.30 mm; maximum thickness 0.22 mm (original measurements); maximum diameter of holotype 0.34 mm, maximum thickness 0.21 mm (this study). [Leckie et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Weakly depressedumb depth:Shallowwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:5.0-7.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: According to Kennett and Srinivasan (1983), siakensis is more common in equatorial and warm subtropical locations, while mayeri is more common in temperate locations. As documented in the synonymy list above, mayeri also occurred in equatorial and tropical waters. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: Biolzi (1983) reported negative δ18O values in comparison to the rest of the assemblage indicating a mixed-layer dwelling habitat, however, the taxonomic concepts are not discussed and no specimens are illustrated. Gasperi and Kennett (1993) reported consistently low δ18O values and low δ13C values through the lower and middle Miocene of DSDP Site 289 in the western equatorial Pacific suggesting a mixed-layer habitat. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: The ancestry of P. mayeri has been widely debated. Kennett and Srinivasan (1983) suggested that P. mayeri was derived from siakensis in the latest Oligocene. This evolutionary relationship was further supported by Spezzaferri and Premoli Silva (1991) who proposed that P. mayeri s.s. originated from P. siakensis in the latest Oligocene as the mayeri-siakensis plexus increased in size (>250 µm; also see Spezzaferri, 1994). Both taxa share the same (or close) last occurrence in the early late Miocene (Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Spezzaferri, 1994); the extinction of P. mayeri is used to define the base of Zone M12 (Wade et al., 2011). [Leckie et al. 2018]

Jenkins (1971) suggested that “pre-Orbulina” (i.e., early Miocene) specimens of G. (T.) mayeri mayeri may be better assigned to siakensis. Jenkins (1978) reported the lowest occurrence of G. mayeri mayeri in the middle Miocene G. mayeri mayeri Zone at DSDP Site 360 and 362 in the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Jenkins (1960, 1966, 1971, 1975) and Jenkins and Srinivasan (1986) proposed that mayeri evolved from peripheroronda in the late middle Miocene. Jenkins and Srinivasan (1986) speculated that G. challengeri Srinivasan and Kennett was an intermediate species between peripheroronda and mayeri. We reject these proposed phylogenetic relationships because of the latest Oligocene/earliest Miocene first appearance of mayeri precedes peripheroronda (Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Chaisson and Leckie, 1993; Spezzaferri, 1994). We conclude that mayeri was derived from siakensis in the latest Oligocene. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Some authors have proposed that P. mayeri gave rise to Fohsella? peripheroronda in the earliest Miocene (Bolli and Saunders, 1982a; Spezzaferri, 1994; see transitional specimens illustrated on pl. 25, figs. 4a-c and 5a-c), while others have proposed that P. kugleri was the direct ancestor of F.? peripheroronda (e.g., Fleisher, 1974; Stainforth and others, 1975; Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Chaisson and Leckie, 1993). The generic assignment of peripheroronda remains unsettled and therefore a discussion of this taxon and the origin of the genus of Fohsella is not considered further in this work. [Leckie et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Paragloborotalia siakensis - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Leckie et al. 2018.
Likely descendants: Globorotalia bella;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Uppermost Oligocene – lower upper Miocene (Zone O7 through Zone M11; Bolli and Saunders, 1982a; Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Spezzaferri and Premoli Silva, 1991; Spezzaferri, 1994; Wade and others, 2011). Berggren and others (1983), like many others (e.g., Jenkins, 1960, 1966, 1971, 1975), reported a lowest occurrence in the middle Miocene. [Leckie et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within M11 zone (10.46-11.63Ma, top in Tortonian stage). Data source: Leckie et al. 2018
First occurrence (base): within O7 zone (22.96-25.21Ma, base in Chattian stage). Data source: Leckie et al. 2018

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Leckie et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.5 p.146


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Paragloborotalia mayeri compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 3-7-2020

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