Parasubbotina griffinae

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Parasubbotina -> Parasubbotina griffinae
Sister taxa: P. griffinae, P. eoclava, P. hagni, P. prebetica, P. inaequispira, P. pseudowilsoni, P. variospira, P. varianta, P. pseudobulloides, P. aff. pseudobulloides, P. sp.,


Citation: Parasubbotina griffinae (Blow 1979)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globorotalia (Turborotalia) griffinae
Taxonomic discussion: When Blow (1979) described Globorotalia (Turborotalia) griffinae ( =Parasubbotina griffinae), he selected the holotype and some paratypes from the same sample (KANE 9 Core 42, 200 cm) from which he also illustrated hypotypic specimens of Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana (Petters). His case for regarding griffinae as ancestral to bolivariana is clear from the SEM illustrations of the two species (his pl. 150, figs. 1-9) as they both share a Clavigerinella-type reticulate wall texture. Blow also illustrated paratypes of P. griffinae from other levels in KANE 9 Core 42 (his pl. 157, fig. 7, from 95 cm; pl. 162, figs. 8, 9, from 42 cm; pl. 165, figs. 1-3, from 15 cm) that clearly differ from the holotype and paratypes of the species illustrated from the type level. These paratypes have a more coarsely cancellate, non-reticulate wall texture and a thickened, continuous apertural lip. Toumarkine and Luterbacher (1985) included morphotypes like these in griffinae (their fig. 27:19-23). We place all these in Paragloborotalia griffinoides n. sp. (see discussion under that species).
Although not readily recognized by previous workers, P. griffinae appears in the stratigraphic record shortly before the development of Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana and can be considered an intermediate morphotype linking P. inaequispira and P. bolivariana. We have also found specimens attributable to P. griffinae as high as Zone E14 in Java (Pl.5.10, Figs. 9-11) although we recognize that detailed stratigraphic investigations may reveal these forms, which are less inflated than the holotype, not to be conspecific.
Globigerina micropora de Klasz, Le Calvez and Rerat appears from the type illustration to have the gross test morphology of griffinae but the character of the aperture and wall texture cannot be determined. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globorotalia (Turborotalia) griffinae, Globigerina inaequispira angusta

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Test very low trochospiral, globular with strongly inflated chambers; inner whorls partially overlapped by the ultimate whorl. Wall texture Clavigerinella-type (high porosity, reticulated)

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters: Parasubbotina griffinae is distinguished by its very low trochospiral, globular test with strongly inflated chambers, with the inner whorls partially overlapped by the ultimate whorl, and the high porosity, reticulated Clavigerinella-type wall texture. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Wall type: Normal perforate, high porosity, reticulated sacculifer-type, spinose. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Very low trochospiral, globular, lobulate in outline, chambers globular, much inflated; in spiral view 4-5 globular, somewhat embracing chambers in ultimate whorl, increasing moderately in size, inner whorl of chambers partly overlapped by the ultimate whorl, sutures moderately depressed, straight, penultimate and ultimate chamber may be reduced in size relative to preceeding chambers; in umbilical view 4-5 globular, somewhat embracing chambers, increasing moderately in size, sutures moderately depressed, straight, umbilicus a small sized opening, enclosed by surrounding chambers, aperture umbilical-extraumbilical, bordered by a narrow continuous, lip or thickened rim; in edge view chambers globular in shape, aperture a low arch extending midway onto the peripheral edge, bordered by a narrow lip or thickened rim. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.41 mm, thickness 0.29 mm. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Very lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-5.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Global in low to mid latitudes, P. griffinae is a common constituent of relatively high productivity environments in the Eocene. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Low to middle latitudes and high productivity/upwelling; based on Olsson et al. (2006c)

Isotope paleobiology: Relatively heavy ∂18O indicating cool water (H. K. Coxall, unpublished data). [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 6 - Upwelling/high productivity. Based on occurrence predominantly in sites of high productivity or upwelling. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): H. K. Coxall unpublished data

Phylogenetic relations: Parasubbotina griffinae evolved from P. inaequispira and rapidly gave rise to Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Parasubbotina inaequispira - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 f5.1.
Likely descendants: Pseudoglobigerinella bolivariana;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zone E7 to Zone E14. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within E14 zone (35.89-37.99Ma, top in Priabonian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006
First occurrence (base): within E7 zone (45.72-50.20Ma, base in Ypresian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 5, p. 100


Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

de Klasz, I., Le Calvez, Y. & Rerat, D. (1969). Nouveaux foraminiferes du bassin sedimentaire du Gabon (Afrique equatoriale). In, Said, R. , Beckmann, J. P. , Ghorab, M. A. , El Ansary, S. , Viotti, C. & Kerdany, M. T. (eds) Proceedings of the Third African Micropaleonotligical Colloquium, Cairo March 1968. National Information and Documentation Centre, Cairo 269-286. gs

Kurgalimova, G. G. (1972). Описание некоторых характерных глобигерин из среднеэоценовых отложений Восточного Приаралья [Description of some characteristic globigerinids from Middle Eocene deposits of the Eastern Aral Sea region]. Paleontological collection, Proceedings of the All-Union Scientific Research Geological Prospecting Petroleum Institute (VNIGNI). 4(83): 109-115. gs

Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N. & Huber, B. T. (2006c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In, Pearson, P. N. , Olsson, R. K. , Hemleben, C. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 5): 67-110. gs

Toumarkine, M. & Luterbacher, H. (1985). Paleocene and Eocene planktic foraminifera. In, Bolli, H. M. , Saunders, J. B. & Perch-Neilsen, K. (eds) Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 87-154. gs


Parasubbotina griffinae compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 31-3-2020

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