Subbotina angiporoides

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Subbotina -> Subbotina angiporoides
Sister taxa: S. projecta, S. tecta, S. jacksonensis, S. corpulenta, S. eocaena, S. gortanii, S. crociapertura, S. yeguaensis, S. senni, S. roesnaesensis, S. utilisindex, S. angiporoides, S. minima, S. linaperta, S. patagonica, S. cancellata, S. hornibrooki, S. velascoensis, S. triloculinoides, S. triangularis, S. trivialis, S. sp.,


Citation: Subbotina angiporoides (Hornibrook 1965)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina angiporoides
Taxonomic discussion:

Globigerina angipora Stache was described from sediments collected from the lower Oligocene (according to Hornibrook, 1965) Whaingaroa siltstone of New Zealand (Stache, 1865:287, pl. 24, fig. 36a-b). Unfortunately the description and illustrations are poor by modern standards and according to Hornibrook (1965), subsequent New Zealand taxonomists (following Finlay, 1939) identified a different form under the same name. Hornibrook (1965) declared angipora a nomen dubium and erected angiporoides to incorporate those forms previously described as angipora. A full discussion of this species was provided by Olsson and others (2006). The species is a common component of early Oligocene high latitude assemblages. Olsson and others (2006) considered Subbotina angiporoides minima (Jenkins) to be a junior synonym of Subbotina angiporoides (Hornibrook), however here we recognize Subbotina minima as a distinct species. [Wade et al. 2018]

Hornibrook (1961) used the name Globigerina angipora Stache, 1865 for a taxon resembling Stache’s figures. Later, after it was confirmed that Stache’s specimens were lost he declared the species a nomen dubium and erected the name angiporoides for this taxon. The species is a common element of middle Eocene-early Oligocene austral assemblages and its extinction has been used to define the top of the Globigerina angiporoides Zone of Jenkins (1965) and the Subbotina angiporoides Zone (Zone AP13) of Stott and Kennett (1990). Jenkins (1965) distinguished Globigerina angiporoides minima as an ancestral form that is smaller and less tightly coiled with a more open umbilicus and more inflated chambers. However, these forms are very difficult to distinguish consistently and, they are here considered synonymous. Morphologic overlap of these forms is revealed by similarity of the more loosely coiled paratype of G. angiporoides (Pl.6.6, Fig. 5) with the holotype of G. angiporoides minima (Pl.6.6, Figs. 9-11) and similarity of the more tightly coiled paratype of G. angiporoides minima (Pl.6.6, Fig. 8) with the holotype of G. angiporoides (Pl.6.6, Figs. 1-3).
Blow (1979, p. 1253-1255) distinguished Subbotina angiporoides lindiensis from S. angiporoides s.str. by its less tightly coiled, less closely appressed, and less embracing chambers. Unlike S. angiporoides s.str., the final chambers of Blow’s illustrated paratypes of S. angiporoides lindiensis, though broken, are kummerform and positioned adjacent to, rather than over, the umbilicus. The holotype of S. angiporoides lindiensis, which was originally illustrated as Globigerina linaperta pseudoeocaena (Subbotina) by Blow and Banner (1962, pl. 11, fig. M) is very similar to Blow’s paratypes, except for the absence of a kummerform chamber. The chamber arrangement and presence of a broad apertural lip on all forms of Blow’s subspecies suggest that it is more closely related to Subbotina yeguaensis (Weinzierl and Applin) than to S. angiporoides. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina angiporoides;
Globigerina linaperta transdanubica;

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Like S. linaperta but chambers more globular and final chamber usually strongly embracing, resembling a bulla and extending over the umbilicus.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters:

Distinguished by often having a kummerform final chamber that resembles a bulla and extends over the umbilicus, and “a low slit-like aperture that is bordered by a thick lip and is centered over the antepenultimate chamber” (Olsson and others, 2006:126). In S. angiporoides the penultimate and ultimate chambers are about the same size giving rise to a test that appears compact. Furthermore, the lip on S. angiporoides appears continuous from one adjacent chamber to the other. It is distinguished from S. utilisindex by its more compact test, kummerform final chamber with slit-like aperture and 3½-4 (rather than 3) chambers in the final whorl. Subbotina minima has a less compact test, more open umbilicus, shorter more arched aperture and often a less defined lip. It differs from Catapsydrax unicavus by its more compact test, well-defined lip and no bulla. [Wade et al. 2018]

Wall type: Spinose, normal perforate, moderately cancellate, often thickened by addition of gametogenetic calcite, ruber/sacculifer-type wall. [Wade et al. 2018]

Test morphology: “Test small to moderate size, non-umbilicate, spherical, quadrilobate, axial periphery rounded; chambers inflated, increasing moderately in size, 11-13 coiled in 3 whorls, usually 4 chambers in the final whorl that are often elongated along the radial axis; final chamber usually strongly embracing, kummerform, and extended over the umbilical sutures; sutures weakly depressed, radial to slightly curved; aperture a low, indistinct, interiomarginal slit bordered by a thick lip that extends the full width of the chamber face, opening in and sometimes beyond the umbilical area” (Olsson and others, 2006:126). [Wade et al. 2018]

Size: Holotype maximum diameter 0.45 mm; hypotype size range 0.45 to 0.55 mm. [Wade et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Subquadratechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Highperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thick lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:N/Aperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:N/Awall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan, generally considered a high latitude form, but also recorded from low latitudes, e.g., Gulf of Mexico (Spezzaferri and Premoli Silva, 1991) and Tanzania (Blow, 1979). [Wade et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: “Poore and Matthews (1984) recorded lower Oligocene samples with δ18O values intermediate between other species from DSDP Site 522” (Olsson and others, 2006:129). It is generally considered to be a cool water taxon due to its prevalence in high latitudes (Spezzaferri and Premoli Silva, 1991). [Wade et al. 2018]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light δ13C and relatively heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Poore & Matthews (1984); Coxall et al. (2000)

Phylogenetic relations: Descended from S. minima during the middle Eocene, perhaps close to the Zone P13/14 (now Zone E12/E13) boundary (Blow, 1979). [Wade et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Subbotina minima - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Wade et al. 2018.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: The first appearance datum of S. angiporoides marks the base of middle Eocene Zone AE7 (Huber and Quillévéré, 2005). [Wade et al. 2018 NB base AE7 is equivalent to base E11] The extinction of S. angiporoides has been used as a primary biostratigraphic marker in the high latitude zonations of Jenkins (1965) and Stott and Kennett (1990) and is used to define the base of Zone OL4 in Poore (1984) and the base of Zone AO2 in Huber and Quillévéré (2005). Subbotina angiporoides is a secondary marker in the tropical zonations of Berggren and others (1995) and Wade and others (2011). The last appearance datum is within lower Oligocene Zone O3 and calibrated to Chron C11n in multiple sites (Berggren and others, 1995). [Wade et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within O3 zone (29.18-30.28Ma, top in Rupelian stage). Data source: Wade et al. 2018
First occurrence (base): within E11 zone (40.40-41.89Ma, base in Lutetian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Wade et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.10 p.309; Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 6, p. 126


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Subbotina angiporoides compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 26-4-2019

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