Subbotina eocaena


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Subbotina -> Subbotina eocaena
Sister taxa: S. projecta, S. tecta, S. jacksonensis, S. corpulenta, S. eocaena, S. gortanii, S. crociapertura, S. yeguaensis, S. senni, S. roesnaesensis, S. utilisindex, S. angiporoides, S. minima, S. linaperta, S. patagonica, S. cancellata, S. hornibrooki, S. velascoensis, S. triloculinoides, S. triangularis, S. trivialis, S. sp.,

Taxonomy

Citation: Subbotina eocaena (Guembel 1868)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina eocaena
Synonyms: [Olsson 2006 & Wade et al. 2018 - merged]
Taxonomic discussion:

Hagn and Lindenberg (1969) selected a neotype for Globigerina eocaena Guembel, 1868 because, apparently, Guembel had not designed a type specimen when he described this species. Hagn and Lindenberg could not locate his original material in the Bavarian State collections for Paleontology and Historical Geology in Munich. Hence, they selected a neotype from a sample taken from strata that Guembel had studied in 1868 from the Gerhartsreiter Graben near Siegsdorf, Austria. A species that appears morphologically similar to G. eocaena is Globigerina eocaenica Terquem, 1882. The type specimen of G. eocaenica, according to Berggren (1960) is broken and unusable and the beds from which the species is described are no longer available for collection. Berggren (1960) recommended that Terquem’s taxon be considered as nomen dubium non conservandum. Terquem shows a globular 3½ chambered form with globular, embracing chambers, a morphology that falls within the range of G. eocaena. Since Terquem described G. eocaenica from the middle Eocene where G. eocaena is common, it is probable that G. eocaenica is a junior synonym of G. eocaena. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Subbotina (1953) described Globigerina pseudoeocaena, which she separated from her concept of Globigerina eocaena. The neotype of G. eocaena, however, more closely resembles, for the most part, the varieties of G. pseudoeocaena described by Subbotina. Both G. pseudoeocaena var. compacta and G. pseudoeocaena var. trilobata are 3½ chambered globular forms that fall within the morphologic range of Subbotina eocaena. The holotype of G. pseudoeocaena var. pseudoeocaena has the morphological characteristics of Subbotina yeguaensis whereas other illustrations of this variety by Subbotina exhibit the morphology of S. eocaena. The specimens illustrated by Subbotina as G. eocaena show the looser coiling characteristic of Subbotina hagni. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina eocaena, Globigerina bakeri, Globigerina bulloides compacta, Globigerina eocaenica irregularis, Globigerina pseudoeocaena compacta, Globigerina subtriloculinoides, Globigerina eocaenica, Globigerina rustica

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Large adult test with globular, embracing, chambers. Aperture low-arched, with thin irregular lip.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.

Description


Diagnostic characters:

Subbotina eocaena is typified by its low rate of chamber size increase, globular chambers, open umbilicus, with a low arched aperture bordered by a thin irregular lip. It is distinguished from S. corpulenta by its well-developed lip and large, globular final chamber. It is distinguished from Subbotina tecta by its more radially compressed chambers and lack of a prominent polygonal tooth. [Wade et al. 2018]


Wall type: Cancellate, normal perforate, spinose, ruber/sacculifer-type wall texture. [Wade et al. 2018]

Test morphology: Test low trochospiral, globular, oval in outline, chambers globular arranged in three whorls; in spiral view 3½-4 globular, embracing chambers in ultimate whorl, increasing moderately rapidly in size, sutures moderately depressed, straight to slightly curved; in umbilical view 3½-4 globular, embracing chambers, increasing moderately in size, sutures moderately depressed, straight, umbilicus small, enclosed by surrounding chambers, aperture umbilical to slightly extraumbilical, directed somewhat anteriorly over the umbilicus, bordered by a thin, irregular lip; in edge view chambers globular in shape, embracing, aperture visible as a circular arch, bordered by a thin, irregular lip (modified from Olsson and others, 2006). [Wade et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of neotype 0.69 mm, maximum thickness 0.45 mm. [Wade et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Inflatedcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.5-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology


Geographic distribution: Global in low to mid-latitudes. [Wade et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: “Recorded by Boersma and others (1987) and Stott and Kennett (1990) (as S. eocaenica) with relatively positive δ18O indicating a deep planktonic habitat. Pearson and others (2001) also recorded it as a deep-dwelling form. A lowermost Oligocene sample analyzed by van Eijden and Ganssen (1995) recorded a more intermediate δ18O value” (Olsson and others, 2006:138). Wade and Pearson (2008) recorded relatively negative δ18O for upper Eocene specimens, but more positive values for the lowermost Oligocene. [Wade et al. 2018]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light δ13C and very heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Boersma et al. (1987); Coxall et al. (2000); Pearson et al. (2001a); Wade et al. (2007); Wade & Pearson (2008)

Phylogenetic relations: Subbotina eocaena probably evolved from S. roesnaesensis by an increase in test size and the development of globular, more embracing chambers (Olsson and others, 2006). It most likely gave rise to Subbotina tecta in the upper Eocene. [Wade et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Subbotina roesnaesensis - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 f6.2; Wade et al. 2018.
Likely descendants: Parasubbotina hagni; Subbotina corpulenta; Subbotina jacksonensis; Subbotina tecta;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Subbotina eocaena ranges from the early Eocene Zone E6 (Olsson and others, 2006). The extinction is currently poorly defined. Olsson and others (2006) suggested a range to lower Oligocene Zone O1, however, we have identified specimens as high as upper Oligocene Zone O6 (see Plate 10.3). [Wade et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within O6 zone (25.21-26.93Ma, top in Chattian stage). Data source: Wade et al. 2018 f10.1
First occurrence (base): within E6 zone (50.20-50.67Ma, base in Ypresian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Wade et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.10 p.315; Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 6, p. 134

References:

Berggren, W. A. (1960). Some planktonic foraminifera from the Lower Eocene (Ypresian) of Denmark and northwestern Germany. Stockholm University, Contributions to Geology. 5: 41-108. gs

Bermudez, P. J. (1961). Contribucion al estudio de las Globigerinidea de la region Caribe-Antillana (Paleoceno-Reciente). Editorial Sucre, Caracas. 1119-1393. gs

Blow, W. H. (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden. 2: 1-1413. gs

Boersma, A., Premoli Silva, I. & Shackleton, N. J. (1987). Atlantic Eocene planktonic foraminiferal paleohydrographic indicators and stable isotope paleoceanography. Paleoceanography. 2: 287-331. gs

Cole, W. S. (1927). A foraminiferal fauna from the Guayabal formation in Mexico. Bulletins of American Paleontology. 14(51): 1-36. gs

Gohrbandt, K. H. A. (1967). Some new planktonic foraminiferal species from the Austrian Eocene. Micropaleontology. 13(3): 319-326. gs

Gümbel, C. W. (1868). Beiträge zur Foraminiferenfauna der nordalpinen, älteren Eocängebilde oder der Kressenberger Nummulitenschichten. Abhandlungen der K. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Cl. II,. 10(2): 579-730. gs

Hagn, H. & Lindenberg, H. G. (1966). Revision Globigerina (Subbotina) eocaena Gümbel from the Eocene of the foothills of the Bavarian Alps. Voprosy Mikropaleontologii. 10: 342-358. gs

Hagn, H. & Lindenberg, H. G. (1969). Revision der von C. W. Gümbel 1868 aus dem Eozän des bayerischen Alpenvorlandes beschriebenen planktonischen Foraminiferen. In, Brönnimann, P. & Renz, H. H. (eds) Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils. E. J. Brill, Leiden 229-249. gs

Hagn, H. (1956). Geologische und Palaontologische untersuchungen im Tertial des Monte Brione und seiner Umgebung. Palaeontographica Abt. A. 107(3-6): 67-210. gs

Khalilov, D. M. (1956). 0 pelagicheskoy faune foraminifer Paleogenovykh otlozheniy Azerbaydzhana [Pelagic Foraminifera of the Paleogene Deposits of the Azerbaizhan SSR]. Trudy Instituta Geologii, Akademiya Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR. 17: 234-255. gs

Kurgalimova, G. G. (1972). Описание некоторых характерных глобигерин из среднеэоценовых отложений Восточного Приаралья [Description of some characteristic globigerinids from Middle Eocene deposits of the Eastern Aral Sea region]. Paleontological collection, Proceedings of the All-Union Scientific Research Geological Prospecting Petroleum Institute (VNIGNI). 4(83): 109-115. gs

Leckie, R. M., Farnham, C. & Schmidt, M. G. (1993). Oligocene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of Hole 803D (Ontong Java Plateau) and Hole 628A (Little Bahama Bank), and comparison with the southern high latitudes. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 130: 113-136. gs

Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (2006b). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Globigerina, Globoturborotalita, Subbotina, and Turborotalita. In, Pearson, P. N. , Olsson, R. K. , Hemleben, C. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 6): 111-168. gs

Pearson, P. N. & Wade, B. S. (2015). Systematic taxonomy of exceptionally well-preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Eocene/Oligocene boundary of Tanzania. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 45: 1-85. gs

Pearson, P. N. et al. (2001a). Warm tropical sea surface temperatures in the Late Cretaceous and Eocene epochs. Nature. 413: 481-487. gs

Poag, C. W. & Commeau, J. A. (1995). Paleocene to middle Miocene planktic foraminifera of the southwestern Salisbury Embayment, Virginia and Maryland: Biostratigraphy, allostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 25: 134-155. gs

Quilty, P. G. (1976). Planktonic foraminifera DSDP Leg 34, Nazca Plate. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 34: 629-703. gs

Snyder, S. W. & Waters, V. J. (1985). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Goban Spur Region, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 80. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 80: 439-472. gs

Subbotina, N. N. (1953). Foraminiferes fossiles d'URSS Globigerinidae, Globorotaliidae, Hantkeninidae. Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres. 2239: 1-144. gs

Terquem, O. (1882). Les foraminiferes de l’Eocene des environs de Paris. Mem Soc Geol France ser.3. 2(3): 1-193. gs

Toumarkine, M. & Luterbacher, H. (1985). Paleocene and Eocene planktic foraminifera. In, Bolli, H. M. , Saunders, J. B. & Perch-Neilsen, K. (eds) Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 87-154. gs

van Eijden, A. J. M. & Ganssen, G. M. (1995). An Oligocene multi-species foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope record from ODP Hole 758A (Indian Ocean): paleoceanographic and paleo-ecologic implications. Marine Micropaleontology. 25: 47-65. gs

Wade, B. S. & Pearson, P. N. (2008). Planktonic foraminiferal turnover, diversity fluctuations and geochemical signals across the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in Tanzania. Marine Micropaleontology. 68: 244-255. gs

Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Edgar, K. M. & Premoli Silva, I. (2018a). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Subbotina. In, Wade, B. S. , Olsson, R. K. , Pearson, P. N. , Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 46(Chap 10): 307-330. gs


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Subbotina eocaena compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 22-10-2019

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