Subbotina eocaena

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Subbotina -> Subbotina eocaena
Sister taxa: S. projecta, S. tecta, S. jacksonensis, S. corpulenta, S. eocaena, S. gortanii, S. crociapertura, S. yeguaensis, S. senni, S. roesnaesensis ⟩⟨ S. utilisindex, S. angiporoides, S. minima, S. linaperta, S. patagonica ⟩⟨ S. cancellata, S. hornibrooki, S. velascoensis, S. triloculinoides, S. triangularis, S. trivialis, S. sp.


Citation: Subbotina eocaena (Guembel 1868)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina eocaena
Synonyms: [Olsson 2006 & Wade et al. 2018 - merged]
Taxonomic discussion:

Hagn and Lindenberg (1969) selected a neotype for Globigerina eocaena Guembel, 1868 because, apparently, Guembel had not designed a type specimen when he described this species. Hagn and Lindenberg could not locate his original material in the Bavarian State collections for Paleontology and Historical Geology in Munich. Hence, they selected a neotype from a sample taken from strata that Guembel had studied in 1868 from the Gerhartsreiter Graben near Siegsdorf, Austria. A species that appears morphologically similar to G. eocaena is Globigerina eocaenica Terquem, 1882. The type specimen of G. eocaenica, according to Berggren (1960) is broken and unusable and the beds from which the species is described are no longer available for collection. Berggren (1960) recommended that Terquem’s taxon be considered as nomen dubium non conservandum. Terquem shows a globular 3½ chambered form with globular, embracing chambers, a morphology that falls within the range of G. eocaena. Since Terquem described G. eocaenica from the middle Eocene where G. eocaena is common, it is probable that G. eocaenica is a junior synonym of G. eocaena. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Subbotina (1953) described Globigerina pseudoeocaena, which she separated from her concept of Globigerina eocaena. The neotype of G. eocaena, however, more closely resembles, for the most part, the varieties of G. pseudoeocaena described by Subbotina. Both G. pseudoeocaena var. compacta and G. pseudoeocaena var. trilobata are 3½ chambered globular forms that fall within the morphologic range of Subbotina eocaena. The holotype of G. pseudoeocaena var. pseudoeocaena has the morphological characteristics of Subbotina yeguaensis whereas other illustrations of this variety by Subbotina exhibit the morphology of S. eocaena. The specimens illustrated by Subbotina as G. eocaena show the looser coiling characteristic of Subbotina hagni. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina eocaena, Globigerina bakeri, Globigerina bulloides compacta, Globigerina eocaenica irregularis, Globigerina pseudoeocaena compacta, Globigerina subtriloculinoides, Globigerina eocaenica, Globigerina rustica

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Large adult test with globular, embracing, chambers. Aperture low-arched, with thin irregular lip.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Cancellate, normal perforate, spinose, ruber/sacculifer-type wall texture. [Wade et al. 2018]

Morphology: Test low trochospiral, globular, oval in outline, chambers globular arranged in three whorls; in spiral view 3½-4 globular, embracing chambers in ultimate whorl, increasing moderately rapidly in size, sutures moderately depressed, straight to slightly curved; in umbilical view 3½-4 globular, embracing chambers, increasing moderately in size, sutures moderately depressed, straight, umbilicus small, enclosed by surrounding chambers, aperture umbilical to slightly extraumbilical, directed somewhat anteriorly over the umbilicus, bordered by a thin, irregular lip; in edge view chambers globular in shape, embracing, aperture visible as a circular arch, bordered by a thin, irregular lip (modified from Olsson and others, 2006). [Wade et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of neotype 0.69 mm, maximum thickness 0.45 mm. [Wade et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
sp chamber shape:Inflatedcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Spinoseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.5-4.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Global in low to mid-latitudes. [Wade et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: “Recorded by Boersma and others (1987) and Stott and Kennett (1990) (as S. eocaenica) with relatively positive δ18O indicating a deep planktonic habitat. Pearson and others (2001) also recorded it as a deep-dwelling form. A lowermost Oligocene sample analyzed by van Eijden and Ganssen (1995) recorded a more intermediate δ18O value” (Olsson and others, 2006:138). Wade and Pearson (2008) recorded relatively negative δ18O for upper Eocene specimens, but more positive values for the lowermost Oligocene. [Wade et al. 2018]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light δ13C and very heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Boersma et al. (1987); Coxall et al. (2000); Pearson et al. (2001a); Wade et al. (2007); Wade & Pearson (2008)

Phylogenetic relations: Subbotina eocaena probably evolved from S. roesnaesensis by an increase in test size and the development of globular, more embracing chambers (Olsson and others, 2006). It most likely gave rise to Subbotina tecta in the upper Eocene. [Wade et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Subbotina roesnaesensis - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006 f6.2; Wade et al. 2018.
Likely descendants: Parasubbotina hagni; Subbotina corpulenta; Subbotina jacksonensis; Subbotina tecta;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Subbotina eocaena ranges from the early Eocene Zone E6 (Olsson and others, 2006). The extinction is currently poorly defined. Olsson and others (2006) suggested a range to lower Oligocene Zone O1, however, we have identified specimens as high as upper Oligocene Zone O6 (see Plate 10.3). [Wade et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within O6 zone (25.21-26.93Ma, top in Chattian stage). Data source: Wade et al. 2018 f10.1
First occurrence (base): within E6 zone (50.20-50.67Ma, base in Ypresian stage). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Wade et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.10 p.315; Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 6, p. 134


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Subbotina eocaena compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 19-1-2021

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