Trilobatus primordius

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Trilobatus -> Trilobatus primordius
Sister taxa: T. sacculifer, T. quadrilobatus, T. immaturus, T. trilobus ⟩⟨ T. bisphericus, T. sicanus ⟩⟨ T. altospiralis, T. praeimmaturus, T. primordius, T. subsacculifer, T. sp.


Citation: Trilobatus primordius (Blow and Banner, 1962)
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerinoides quadrilobatus primordius Blow and Banner, 1962
Taxonomic discussion:

The wall texture of T. primordius may appear bulloides-type in places of the same specimen, but in some case could be an artifact due to differential preservation. Blow and Banner (1962) identified Globigerina praebulloides occlusa, which is presently placed in Globoturborotalita (Chapter 8, this volume) as the ancestor of “G.primordius. They identified this form as the precursor of the whole “G.quadrilobatus stock and therefore considered “G.primordius as a “G.quadrilobatus subspecies possessing only one supplementary aperture on the spiral side compared to the two often displayed by “G.quadrilobatus. Trilobatus primordius is here ranked as a species. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides quadrilobatus primordius

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Last chamber forms half of the test; low trochospiral, lobulate;  3½ globular, slightly embracing chambers in the last whorl, increasing rapidly in size; sutures depressed; Primary aperture umbilical arch with a thin rim; one small arched supplementary sutural aperture.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Normal perforate, spinose, ruber/sacculifer-type wall.

Morphology: Low trochospiral, subovate and lobulate in outline, chambers globular arranged in 2½-3 whorls, in spiral view 3½ globular, slightly embracing chambers in the last whorl, increasing rapidly in size. The last chamber is half of the entire test. The sutures are depressed, straight to slightly curved on both sides; umbilicus small, but open and deep, enclosed by surrounding chambers. Primary aperture umbilical, a low to moderately high arch, slightly extending from the umbilicus towards the periphery, bordered by a thin rim; one supplementary sutural small and low arched aperture on the spiral side. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.28 mm. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Equally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Low-moderateperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Wideperiph margin shape:Broadly roundedaccessory apertures:Sutural
spiral sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Strongly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:3.5-3.5 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan, sometimes dominant at low-middle latitudes (Spezzaferri, 1994). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Isotope paleobiology: The isotopic ratio of this species indicates a mixed-layer habitat and a symbiotic life habit (Poore and Matthews, 1984; Pearson and others, 1997; Pearson and Wade, 2009). These oxygen isotope values indicative of a mixed-layer habitat are very close to those measured in specimens identified as Globigerina cf. bulloides (here named Globoturborotalita pseudopraebulloides n. sp. (Chapter 8, this volume) from the Cipero Formation of Trinidad (Pearson and Wade, 2009). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Phylogenetic relations: We suggest Globoturborotalita paracancellata Olsson and Hemleben n. sp. (Chapter 8, this volume) as the ancestral form of T. primordius. [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Globoturborotalita paracancellata - at confidence level 1 (out of 5). Data source: Spezzaferri et al. 2018.
Likely descendants: Trilobatus altospiralis; Trilobatus immaturus; Trilobatus quadrilobatus;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Upper Oligocene Zone O6 to Zone M3, where it is rare. Shafik and Chaproniere (1978) reported the co-occurrence of “Globigerinoides” and Paragloborotalia opima, but that observation is not presently proven. Lamb and Stainforth (1976), Stainforth and others (1975), Berggren and others (1985), Iaccarino (1985), Premoli Silva and Spezzaferri (1990), Spezzaferri and Premoli Silva (1991), and Spezzaferri (1994), all reported the first occurrence of the first member of the genus “Globigerinoides” (“G.primordius) in upper Oligocene Zone O7. Leckie and others (1993) provided constraints on its first occurrence at 25.6 Ma within Zone O7, on the Ontong Java Plateau (Hole 803D), and Bahamas Bank (Hole 628A). Berggren and others (1995) and Wade and others (2011) place the base of this species in Zone O6 at 26.7 Ma and its Lowest Common Occurrence at 24.3 Ma. We find this species present, although rare until Zone M3 (Spezzaferri, 1994; Spezzaferri and others, 2015). [Spezzaferri et al. 2018]
Last occurrence (top): within M3 zone (17.54-19.30Ma, top in Burdigalian stage). Data source: Spezzaferri et al. 2018
First occurrence (base): within O6 zone (25.21-26.93Ma, base in Chattian stage). Data source: Spezzaferri et al. 2018

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Spezzaferri et al. 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.9 p.292


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Trilobatus primordius compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 17-1-2021

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