Turborotalia cocoaensis

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globanomalinidae -> Turborotalia -> Turborotalia cocoaensis
Sister taxa: T. cunialensis, T. cocoaensis, T. cerroazulensis, T. pomeroli, T. frontosa ⟩⟨ T. ampliapertura, T. increbescens, T. altispiroides, T. possagnoensis, T. sp.


Citation: Turborotalia cocoaensis (Cushman 1928)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globorotalia cocoaensis
Taxonomic discussion: The holotype is illustrated by SEM for the first time (Pl.15.4, Figs. 1-3). See remarks under T. cerroazulensis and T. cunialensis. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globorotalia cocoaensis

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Like T. cerroazulensis but final chamber has a distinctly acute periphery in edge view.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Wall type: Smooth, normal to finely perforate with pustules around umbilicus and smooth calcite deposits around proloculus; tendency to defoliate; possible sparse spine holes. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Morphology: Large, low to moderate trochospiral, compressed conical to slightly biconvex test with 4-5 chambers in the final whorl; some specimens show imperforate band around periphery, or weak raised keel, especially on earlier chambers; chambers appressed and embracing, semicircular in dorsal view and wedge-shaped in ventral view, increasing moderately in size; final chamber distinctly acute at periphery in edge view; dorsal sutures strongly curved, flat or raised, commonly with imperforate band; aperture a broad arch, sometimes almost circular, generally not extending towards the periphery; an imperforate or pustulose lip is usually visible; umbilicus very narrow; ventral sutures moderately curved, depressed. Strong tendency for sinistral coiling. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Size: Holotype length 0.48 mm, breadth 0.33 mm. [Pearson et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Subcircularchamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Umbilical-extraumbilical
sp chamber shape:Crescenticcoiling axis:Low-moderateperiphery:Imperforate bandaperture border:Thin lip
umb chbr shape:Subtriangularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Subangularaccessory apertures:None
spiral sutures:Flushumb depth:Deepwall texture:Moderately pustuloseshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5µm
umbilical or test sutures:Weakly depressedfinal-whorl chambers:4.0-5.0 N.B. These characters are used for advanced search. N/A - not applicable

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Cosmopolitan, possibly more restricted to tropical latitudes than T. cerroazulensis. [Pearson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Cosmopolitan; based on Pearson et al. (2006)

Isotope paleobiology: Pearson and others (2001) recorded oxygen isotope ratios almost identical to co-occurring T. cerroazulensis and rather more positive than the co-occurring T. pomeroli / T. pseudoampliapertura group, indicating a somewhat deeper mean habitat. Wade and Kroon (2002) found it to have oxygen and carbon isotope ratios also indicating a deeper habitat. [Pearson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 3 - Open ocean thermocline. Based on light δ13C and relatively heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Pearson et al. (2007)

Phylogenetic relations: Evolved from Turborotalia cerroazulensis in the upper Eocene (Blow and Banner 1962; Toumarkine and Bolli 1970).
[Pearson et al. 2006]

Most likely ancestor: Turborotalia cerroazulensis - at confidence level 4 (out of 5). Data source: Pearson et al. (2006), fig 15.1.
Likely descendants: Turborotalia cunialensis;

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Middle Eocene, upper Zone E13 to just below the Eocene/Oligocene boundary (Zone E16) (Toumarkine and Bolli, 1970; Coccioni and others, 1988). [Pearson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): in upper part of E16 zone (80% up, 34.1Ma, in Priabonian stage). Data source: Pearson et al. (2006), fig. 15.1
First occurrence (base): in upper part of E13 zone (70% up, 38.6Ma, in Bartonian stage). Data source: Pearson et al. (2006), fig. 15.1

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Pearson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chap. 15, p. 446


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Blow, W. H. & Banner, F. T. (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In, Eames, F. E., Banner, F. T., Blow, W. H. & Clarke, W. J. (eds) Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 61-151. gs

Blow, W. H. (1969). Late middle Eocene to Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In, Bronnimann, P. & Renz, H. H. (eds) Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva, 1967. E J Brill, Leiden 380-381. gs

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Coccioni, R., Monaco, P., Monechi, S., Nocchi, M. & Parisi, G. (1988). Biostratigraphy of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at Massignano, (Ancona, Italy). In, Premoli Silva, I., Coccioni, R. & Montanari, A. (eds) The Eocene-Oligocene Boundary in the Marche-Umbria Basin (Italy). International Subcommission on Paleogene Stratigraphy, Ancona 59-80. gs

Cole, W. S. (1928). A foraminiferal fauna from the Chapapote formation in Mexico. Bulletins of American Paleontology. 14(53): 1-32. gs

Cushman, J. A. (1928c). Foraminiferes du Stampien du Bassin de Paris. Bulletin de la Société des Sciences de Seine-et-Oise. 9: 47-63. gs

Cushman, J. A. (1935). Upper Eocene Foraminifera of the Southeastern United States. Professional Papers U.S. Geological Survey. 181: 1-88. gs

Eckert, H. R. (1963). Die obereeozaen Globigerinen-Schiefer (Stadund Schimbergerschiefer) zwischen Pilatus und Schrattenfluh. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 56: 1001-1072. gs

Howe, H. V. & Wallace, W. E. (1932). Foraminifera of the Jackson Eocene at Danville Landing on the Ouachita, Catahoula Parish, Louisiana. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Louisiana. 2: 1-118. gs

Luterbacher, H. P. (1964). Studies in some Globorotalia from the Paleocene and Lower Eocene of the Central Apennines. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 57: 631-730. gs V O

Nishi, H. & Chaproniere, G. C. H. (1994). Eocene-Oligocene subtropical planktonic foraminifers at Site 841,. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results. 135: 245-266. gs

Pearson, P. N. & Wade, B. S. (2015). Systematic taxonomy of exceptionally well-preserved planktonic foraminifera from the Eocene/Oligocene boundary of Tanzania. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 45: 1-85. gs V O

Pearson, P. N., Premec-Fucek, V. & Premoli Silva, I. (2006b). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Turborotalia. In, Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication. 41(Chap 15): 433-460. gs V O

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Poore, R. Z. & Brabb, E. E. (1977). Eocene and Oligocene planktonic foraminifera from the Upper Butano sandstone and type San Lorenzo formation, Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 7(4): 249-272. gs

Pujol, C. (1983). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the South-Western Atlantic (Rio Grande Rise): Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 72. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 72: 623-673. gs

Saakyan-Gezalyan, N. A. (1957). Foraminifer y tretichny khotlozhenii Erevanskogo basseina [Foraminifers of Tertiary deposits of the Yerevan Basin], Erevan. Akademiya Nauk Armyansk SSR, Geologicheskii Institut. 1-141. gs

Snyder, S. W. & Waters, V. J. (1985). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Goban Spur Region, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 80. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 80: 439-472. gs

Toumarkine, M. & Bolli, H. M. (1970). Evolution de Globorotalia cerroazulensis (Cole) dans l'Eocene moyen et superieur de Possagno (Italie). Revue de Micropaléontologie. 13(3): 131-145. gs

Toumarkine, M. & Luterbacher, H. (1985). Paleocene and Eocene planktic foraminifera. In, Bolli, H. M., Saunders, J. B. & Perch-Neilsen, K. (eds) Plankton Stratigraphy. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge 87-154. gs

Toumarkine, M. (1975). Middle and Late Eocene planktonic foraminifera from the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Leg 32 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 32: 735-751. gs

Toumarkine, M. (1978). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Paleogene of Sites 360 to 364 and the Neogene of Sites 362A, 363 and 364 Leg 40,. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 40: 679-721. gs

Wade, B. S. & Kroon, D. (2002). Middle Eocene regional climate instability: Evidence from the western North Atlantic. Geology. 30: 1011-1014. gs


Turborotalia cocoaensis compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 18-1-2021

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