Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globigerinidae -> Turborotalita
Sister taxa: Beella, Globigerina, Globigerinella, Protentella, Quiltyella, Ciperoella, Globigerinoides, Globigerinoidesella, Globoturborotalita, Orbulina, Praeorbulina, Sphaeroidinella, Sphaeroidinellopsis, Trilobatus, Turborotalita, Dentoglobigerina, Globoquadrina, Catapsydrax, Clavatorella, Paragloborotalia, Protentelloides, Eoglobigerina, Globigerinatheka, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Orbulinoides, Parasubbotina, Pseudoglobigerinella, Subbotina,
Daughter taxa: (blue => in age window 0-300Ma)
Five chambers & small, compact outline
radially elongate chambers in the final whorl
Six or more chambers
Five chambers & apertural flap
Paleogene species
Like T. carcoselleensis but more lobate and wall texture better developed.
Test small, slightly lobate, with umbilically directed ultimate chamber, and ruber-type cancellate wall texture.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species



Genus Turborotalita Blow and Banner, 1962

Rank: Genus
Type species: Truncatulina humilis Brady, 1884.
Taxonomic discussion:

Blow and Banner (1962) drew a firm distinction between what they called a reduced final chamber and a true bulla, insisting that their new genus was characterized by the presence of a true bulla. However, this definition is not consistent with the current understanding of the term “bulla” (Hottinger, 2006). In Turborotalita, the “bulla” is essentially a final chamber that is reduced in size and displaced over the umbilicus more than would be expected from the general chamber sequence and sometimes possessing morphological features not seen on earlier chambers. The reduced final chamber often does not possess the characteristic shape of a “bulla”, especially among the early Neogene and Paleogene representatives of the genus. Hence, we emend the generic diagnosis to more specifically refer to the shape and position of the final chamber, which is applicable to all species in the genus. Fleisher (1974) and Kennett and Srinivasan (1983) suggested that the wall is microperforate, but the pore size is macroperforate (typically >2 µm in diameter) and the presence of true spines confirms the relationship of Turborotalita with other spinose macroperforate species. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Catalog entries: Turborotalita;

Type images:

Distinguishing features: Minute, with bullate extension of the final chamber, smooth microperforate wall, large pores and short conical spines concentrated along the periphery.

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


Diagnostic characters: Turborotalita is distinguished from most other spinose planktonic foraminifera by its small size and flattened test. It is distinguished from Globoturborotalita by the presence of an encroaching or ampullate final chamber that extends into the umbilicus. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Wall type: Normal perforate, spinose in life, may or may not be covered with a thick calcite crust, which, when present, can greatly modify the test outline. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Test morphology: Generally small (<300 µm), low trochospiral, relatively flattened, lobate or petaloid in outline (when not encrusted), 4-6 chambers in final whorl, final chamber frequently kummerform, typically displaced towards the umbilicus, often ampullate in shape with a distinct lip, sometimes extending into a flap that may cover the entire umbilicus and end with tunnel-like extensions with one or more openings. Primary aperture umbilical to extraumbilical, narrow to wide, commonly hidden in umbilical view beneath the extended apertural flap of the final chamber. [Pearson & Kucera2018]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Modern Turborotalita is distributed globally but is most abundant in temperate latitudes. The few known Oligocene occurrences are widespread, suggesting a global distribution. [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Phylogenetic relations:

Olsson and others (2006) traced Turborotalita to the middle Eocene Zone E9 (=P11) by assigning Globorotaloides carcoselleensis Toumarkine and Bolli to the genus. They suggested it may have evolved from Globoturborotalita, which itself appeared at the Paleocene / Eocene boundary. However, Koutsoukos (2014) described some exceptionally well-preserved assemblages from the Cretaceous/Paleogene transition off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, including a new species which he called Praemurica nikolasi. We propose that this species is better assigned to Turborotalita on account of the possibly spinose wall (small holes described as minute pores may be spine holes) and general morphology, including particularly the ampullate final chamber. This species tends to have four and a half to five chambers in the final whorl. The highest occurrence of nikolasi was not determined by Koutsoukos (2014) because it extends to the top of that study section (Zone P1c). Other possible Paleocene occurrences include a specimen attributed by Blow (1979, pl. 83, fig. 1) to Globorotalia (Turborotalia) imitata Subbotina from Zone P2 and a specimen attributed by Olsson and others (1999, pl. 12, figs. 10-12) to Globanomalina imitata (Subbotina) from Zone P1b/c. Hence we hypothesize that Turborotalita is a distinct lineage that extends throughout the entire Cenozoic but has rarely been described from Paleogene sediments because of its small size, susceptibility to diagenetic alteration, and perhaps because workers had not expected to find it: resemblance to modern forms has been assumed to be evolutionary convergence rather than phylogenetic continuity. Future studies will hopefully determine the upward range of Turborotalita nikolasi and its relationship to other Turborotalita including T. carcoselleensis and T. quinqueloba. Genetically, modern T. quinqueloba groups with other spinose planktonic foraminifera but its 18S rDNA sequence is the most derived among the spinose species, and the phylogenetic position of the resulting extremely long branch is difficult to constrain (e.g., Aurahs and others, 2009:169; see also Darling and others, 2000, 2003), which is consistent with a deep phylogenetic divergence.  [Pearson & Kucera 2018]

Most likely ancestor: Globoturborotalita - at confidence level 2 (out of 5). Data source: Olsson et al. 2006.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:

Lowermost Paleocene (Zone P0; Koutsoukos, 2014, as Praemurica nikolasi) to Recent.

[Pearson & Kucera 2018]
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): in upper part of Lutetian Stage (60% up, 43.8Ma, in Lutetian stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Pearson & Kucera 2018 - Olig Atlas chap.12 p.387 (major revision of Olsson et al. 2006 - Eocene Atlas, chapter 6, p. 163); Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.167


Aurahs, R.; Grimm, G.W.; Hemleben, V.; Hemleben, C. & Kucera, M., (2009). Geographical distribution of cryptic genetic types in the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber. Mol. Ecol, 18: 1692–1706.

Blow, W.H. & Banner, F.T., (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In: Eames, F.E. et al. (Editors), Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 61-151.

Blow, W.H., (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea), 2. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1413 pp.

Brady, H.B., (1884). Report on the Foraminifera dredged by H.M.S. Challenger, during the years 1873-1876. Rep. Sci. Results H.M.S. Challenger 1873-6, 9 (Zoology): 1-814.

Darling, K.F.; Wade, C.M.; Stewart, I.a.; Kroon, D.; Dingle, R. & Brown, A.J., (2000). Molecular evidence for genetic mixing of Arctic and Antarctic subpolar populations of planktonic foraminifers. Nature, 405: 43–7.

Darling, K.F.; Kucera, M.; Wade, C.M., von Langen, P. & Pak, D., (2003). Seasonal distribution of genetic types of planktonic foraminifer morphospecies in the Santa Barbara Channel and its paleoceanographic implications. Paleoceanography, 18: 1-11.

Fleisher, R.L., (1974). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 23: 1001-1072.

Fleisher, R.L., (1974). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 23: 1001-1072.

Hottinger, L., (2006). Illustrated glossary of terms used in foraminiferal research. Carnets de Géologie/ Notebooks on Geology, Memoir, 2: 1-126.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.

Koutsoukos, E., (2014). Phenotypic plasticity, speciation, and phylogeny in Early Danian planktic foraminifera. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 44: 109-142.

Olsson, R.K.; Hemleben, C.; Berggren, W.A. & Huber, B.T., (1999). Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 85. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1-252 pp.

Olsson, R.K.; Hemleben, C.; Huber, B.T. & Berggren, W.A., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Globigerina, Globoturborotalita, Subbotina, and Turborotalita. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 111-168.

Pearson, P.N. & Kucera, M., (2018). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Turborotalita. In: Wade, B.S. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research Special Pulbication. 46, pp. 385-393.


Turborotalita compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 22-9-2018

Taxon Search:
Advanced Search
Short stable page link: http://mikrotax.org/pforams/index.php?id=100320Go to Archive.is to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Comments (0)

No comments yet. Be the first!

Add Comment

* Required information
Captcha Image
Powered by Commentics