Nannotax3 - ntax_cenozoic - Papposphaera Nannotax3 - ntax_cenozoic - Papposphaera

Papposphaera


Classification: ntax_cenozoic -> Coccolith families inc sed -> Papposphaeraceae -> Papposphaera
Sister taxa: Papposphaera, Pappomonas, Balaniger, Formonsella, Quaternariella ⟩⟨ Ventimolina, Wigwamma, Pseudowigwamma ⟩⟨ Kataspinifera, Picarola, Vexillarius, Pocillithus

Daughter taxa (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)
lepida group - varimorphic with large flat calices, axial cross
Papposphaera lepida
Central areas with axial cross;
Process 2-4 µm high, supporting flat cone of four large elements, these form an almost continuous outer layer to the coccosphere.
Papposphaera obpyramidalis
Central areas with axial cross;
Process 1.5-2.5 µm high, low stem supports fan-shaped calyx of four large elements with rounded distal edges.
Pappomonas vexillata
Central area with axial cross supporting spine with oblique triangular calyx.
Varimorphic - spines higher and porcesses larger at flagellar pole
Alboran group - varimorphic small calices, axial cross
Papposphaera sp. type 1
Central area with axial cross;
Process ca. 0.5-1.5 µm, robust with narrow conical calyx of four plates.
Varimorphic: process height varies continuously along coccosphere.
Papposphaera sp. type 4
Central area with axial cross;
Process ca. 0.5-1.5 µm, robust with radiate calyx of four plates.
Varimorphic: process height varies continuously along coccosphere.
Papposphaera sp. type 5
Central area with axial cross;
Process ca. 0.5-1.5 µm, with radiate calyx of three plates.
Varimorphic: process height varies continuously along coccosphere.
Papposphaera sp. type 6
Central area with axial cross;
Process ca 1.0-2.5 µm, formed of three radiate plates which extend from base to apex without a distinct stem.
Varimorphic: process height varies continuously along coccosphere.
Papposphaera sp. type 2
Central area with diagonal cross
Process ca. 0.5-1.5 µm, robust with calyx of three or four rods.
Dimorphic: CFCs with tall processes (ca. 1.5 µm) with calyx of 4 (or 3?) rods perpendicular to process. BCs with shorter processes and calyx of 3 diverging rods.
sagittifera group - BCs with low spine; CFCs with tall spine, cruciform calyx
Papposphaera sagittifera
Central areas with axial cross and 2-4 additional longitudinal bars;
Process 2-4 µm high with small calyx of 4 radially diverging blades.
Papposphaera sarion
Central areas with axial cross and a 1 or a few extra bars
Process 2-4 µm high ending distally in four sub-parallel crystallites, each ca. 1 µm long (no real calyx).
Papposphaera arctica
Central areas with axial cross
Process 2-4 µm high with small calyx of 4 radially diverging blades.
Papposphaera iugifera
BC central areas with transverse crossbar; CFC central areas with axial cross
Process 2-4 µm high with small calyx of 4 radially diverging blades.
Papposphaera heldalii
BC central areas open; CFC central areas with axial cross
Process 2-4 µm high with delicate calyx of 4 radially diverging blades.
thomsenii group - CFCs & peripheral coccoliths with tall spine and small calyx of 4 petals; BCs with axial cross & low spine +/- calyx
Papposphaera thomsenii
Central areas with axial cross;
Process 5-6 µm high, tall stem supports narrow cone of four elements.
Papposphaera bourrellii
Central areas with axial cross
Processes ca 3.5 µm long with calyx-like distal appendage.
Papposphaera sp. type 3
CFC Process ca. 3 µm, delicate with narrow calyx of four plates. Dispersed CFC-like liths have smaller calices.
BCs with  axial cross and low spine supporting a flat calyx of four blades. The calyx overlaps the rim.
Papposphaera sp. cf. type 3
Like Papposphaera sp. type 3 but BCs with low, flat calyx, enclosed within the rim of the coccolith.
Pappomonas sp. type 3
Like Papposphaera sp. type 3 but BCs with simple spine, no calyx.
monomorphic, open, elements separated
Papposphaera simplicissima
Central areas open; no process; rim elements separated and so wall is discontinuous. Crystallites of two types occur alternately along the scale periphery.
unidentified
Papposphaera sp.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species

Taxonomy:

Citation: Papposphaera Tangen, 1972
taxonomic rank: Genus
Type species: Papposphaera lepida Tangen, 1972
Taxonomic discussion: This is a diverse genus, so it is subdivided here into five informal groups. This subdivision is intended for discussion and may change [my interpretation - JRY 2022]
  1. lepida group: varimorphic, with no marked separation of CFCs and BCs. Spines bear large flat calices, oriented either horizontally (P. lepida and P. vexillata) or vertically (P. obpyramidalis). All coccoliths with axial crosses.
  2. Alboran group: varimorphic, mostly with no marked separation of CFCs and BCs. Spines bear relatively small calices of variable form. The 5 included forms were all informally described by Cros & Fortuño 2002, from the Alboran Sea. All coccoliths with axial crosses.
  3. sagittifera group: varimorphic but with strong separation of BCs and CFCs. CFCs have tall spines with tetraradiate  calices whilst typical BCs have short spines without calices, but coccoliths with intermediate charcters also occur. Species separated by central area structures and calices.
  4. thomsenii group: dimorphic. CFCs have tall spines with small conical calices formed of 4 blades. Similar long-spined coccoliths, but with slightly smaller calices, occur arond the periphery of the coccosphere and at the antapical pole. BCs with low spine. All species with axial crosses. Three informally decribed species are separated by presence/absence and form of calices on BCs. Two poorly known but formally decribed species also seem to belong in this group, these may be the same entities as the informally described species.
  5. simplicissima group - a singe species with ring-shaped coccoliths, lacking CFCs or central area structures. 

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Papposphaeraceae): Narrow-rimmed muroliths, mostly with prominent central structures.
This taxon: Coccolith distal rim serrated - elements pentagonal;
Coccosphere varimorphic, or dimorphic. All coccoliths have spines but CFCs typically have longer spines and larger calices.

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: Papposphaera *


Morphology:

Coccoliths elliptical; outer rim elements with angular tops, forming serrated margin. Species separated mainly on central area and process structures. In varimorphic species the size of the process depends on the location in the periplast.


Ecology & Biogeography

Best known from Polar waters. They also occur at lower latitudes, but are rare and mostly occur in mid/lower photic zone.

Biology & life-cycles
Three associatations of Papposphaera heterococcolith phases with holococcolith morphotypes prevously assigned to Turrisphaera have been established (Thomsen et al. 1991, 2016). In addition a P. lepida combination coccosphere with an unidentifiable Turrisphaera type holococcolith has been seen (Young unpubl. obs.) and P. polybotrys HOL has been seen in combination with an unidentifiable Papposphaera herococcolith. So the association of the holococcolith and heterococcolith stages is well-supported. Nonetheless, there remains the possibility that some Papposphaera species may prove to have different holococcolith phases.

See also: Papposphaera HOL ;

Search data:
LITHS: murolith, elliptical, CA: cross-axial, ca_disjunct, process,
CSPH: equant,
Lith size: 0.5->1.5µm; Coccosphere size: 4->12µm;
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

Geological Range:
Notes: NB We previously suggested on this website a range through to the Palaeogene but the fossil specimens on which this was based are now placed in a separate genus, Pocilithus [JRY 2016]
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Total of ranges of the species in this database
First occurrence (base): within No known fossil record modern (0.00-0.00Ma, base in "Holocene" stage). Data source: Total of ranges of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

References:

Cros, L. & Fortuño, J. -M. (2002). Atlas of northwestern Mediterranean coccolithophores. Scientia Marina. 66: 1-186. gs

Tangen, K. (1972). Papposphaera lepida, gen. nov. n. sp., a new marine coccolithophorid from Norwegian coastal waters. Norwegian Journal of Botany. 19: 171-178. gs

Thomsen, H. A. & Egge, J. K. (2016). Papposphaera heldalii sp. nov. (Haptophyta, Papposphaeraceae) from Svalbard. Acta Protozoologica. 55: 27-32. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Ostergaard, J. B. & Hansen, L. E. (1991). Heteromorphic life histories in Arctic coccolithophorids (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 27: 634-642. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Ostergaard, J. B. & Heldal, M. (2016). Coccolithophores in Polar Waters: Papposphaera sagittifera HET and HOL revisited. Acta Protozoologica. 55: 33-50. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Heldal, M. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2016). Coccolithophores in Polar Waters: Papposphaera arctica HET and HOL revisited. Micropaleontology. 61(6): 419-427. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Heldal, M. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2016). Coccolithophores in Polar Waters: Papposphaera sarion HET and HOL revisited. Micropaleontology. 61(6): 429-438. gs

Young, J. R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2003). A guide to extant coccolithophore taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research. S1: 1-132. gs


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Papposphaera compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 21-2-2024

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Short stable page link: https://mikrotax.org/Nannotax3/index.php?id=1003 Go to Archive.is to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes
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