Nannotax3 - ntax_cenozoic - Syracosphaera pulchra HOL galea type Nannotax3 - ntax_cenozoic - Syracosphaera pulchra HOL galea type

Syracosphaera pulchra HOL galea type

Classification: ntax_cenozoic -> Holococcoliths -> convex -> Syracosphaera pulchra HOL galea type
Sister taxa: C. sphaeroidea HOL, S. pulchra HOL oblonga type, S. pulchra HOL pirus type, S. pulchra HOL galea type, C. divergens ⟩⟨ C. heimdaliae, C. lluisae, C. radiata, Flosculosphaera, Gliscolithus


Citation: Syracosphaera pulchra HOL galea type (Lecal-Schlauder, 1951) sensu Keuter et al. 2021
Rank: Species
Basionym: Calyptrosphaera galea Lecal-Schlauder, 1951
Taxonomic discussion: This morphotype appears to be intermediate in morphology beween the oblonga and pirus types and like them has been found forming combination coccospheres with Syracosphaera pulchra HET. It is discussed in detail by Keuter et al. (2021).

Band at top of tube: The specimens illustrated by Norris (1985) show a finely perforate band about three crystallites high at the top of the tube, which is lacking on the specimens of our combination coccospheres (Fig. 5c). However, similar variation is shown by pirus-type holococcoliths (Fig. 5e, f), and the presence or absence of this feature is not entirely consistent on single coccospheres. So, we do not consider it useful to discriminate the holococcoliths in the specimens from the GoA from the other galea-type holococcoliths. [Keuter et al. 2021]

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (convex): Holococcoliths with tube, covered distally by a convex cover
This taxon: Tube high and well-separated from cover; hexagonal mesh fabric

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: C. galea *


Like C. divergens but tube higher (ca. 7 crystallite layers vs. ca. 5), protrusion broader and rim/distal surface break less distinct. Hexagonal mesh fabric. Not common or widely recognised, but an unambiguous specimen was illustrated by Norris (1985, p. 624).
CFCs with pyramidal boss - similar to those on Syracosphaera pulchra HOL oblonga type and S. pulchra HOL pirus type. [JRY unpubl obs - see image JRY-IODP359-P01-040]

Biology & life-cycles

Three unambiguous combination coccospheres illustrated by Keuter et al. 2021, and 7 more observed by them but not illustrated.  "These combination cells appeared in the upper photic layers during the spring–summer when the water column is stratified."

Phylogenetic relations

Search data:
LITHS: holococcolith, elliptical, hollow, CA: closed,
CSPH: elongated, CFC, CROSS-POLARS: V-prominent, R-prominent,
Lith size: 2->3µm; Coccosphere size: 10->15µm;
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: present in the plankton (Young et al. 2003)
First occurrence (base): within No known fossil record modern (0.00-0.00Ma, base in "Holocene" stage). Data source: [JRY rough estimate]

Plot of occurrence data:


Keuter, S., Young, J. R., Koplovitz, G., Zingone, A. & Frada, M. J. (2021). Novel heterococcolithophores, holococcolithophores and life cycle combinations from the families Syracosphaeraceae and Papposphaeraceae and the genus Florisphaera. Journal of Micropalaeontology. 40: 75-99. gs O

Lecal-Schlauder, J. (1951). Recherches morphologiques et biologiques sur les Coccolithophorides Nord-Africains. Annales de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco & Paris. 26: 255-362. gs

Norris, R. E. (1985). Indian Ocean nanoplankton. II. Holococcolithophorids (Calyptrosphaeraceae, Prymnesiophyceae) with a review of extant genera. Journal of Phycology. 21: 619-641. gs

Winter, A., Reiss, Z. & Luz, B. (1979). Distribution of living coccolithophore assemblages in the Gulf of Elat ('Aqaba). Marine Micropaleontology. 4: 197-223. gs

Yang, T-N., Wei, K-Y. & Gong G-C. (2001). Distribution of coccolithophorids and coccoliths in surface ocean off northeastern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica. 42: 287-302. gs


Syracosphaera pulchra HOL galea type compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 21-3-2023

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