pforams@mikrotax - Candeina pforams@mikrotax - Candeina


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Candeinidae -> Candeina
Sister taxa: Candeina
Daughter taxa (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)
Candeina nitida
Candeina sp.


Citation: Candeina d’Orbigny, 1839
taxonomic rank: genus
Type species: Candeina nitida
Taxonomic discussion:

We believe that Candeina is a monospecific genus. A subspecific variant of the type species was proposed as Candeina nitida praenitida Blow, 1969, but its distinctions are very subtle, and we do not recognize the subspecies. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Catalog entries: Candeina

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Candeinidae): Microperforate with sutural apertures (and possibly a separate evolutionary origin)
This taxon: Sutural apertures:

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.


The genus Candeina is characterized by high trochospiral test, comprising globular chambers; microperforate surface with multiple sutural supplementary apertures, but no primary aperture visible. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Parker (1962) considered earlier classification attempts “illogical” and following Hofker (1954) suggested a link with Globigerinita. This classification of Candeina is indeed consistent with its microperforate wall and early ontogeny (Brummer, 1988a), as well as with genetic evidence indicating that this genus is related to Globigerinita (Ujiié and Lipps, 2009; Morard et al., 2019b). Following most recent works but unlike Pearson et al. (2018), we here retain Candeina among the microperforate clade. [Brummer & Kucera 2022]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Phylogenetic relations

The microperforate surface ultrastructure of Candeina is similar to Globigerinita, and we agree with Blow (1969) that Candeina evolved from Globigerinita parkerae (Text Fig. 25). [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]


Most likely ancestor: Globigerinita - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, fig 25.

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Total of ranges of the species in this database
First occurrence (base): within N17b zone (5.72-6.60Ma, base in Messinian stage). Data source: Total of ranges of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivasan 1983, p.229


Brummer, G-J. A. & Kucera, M. (2022). Taxonomic review of living planktonic foraminifera. Journal of Micropalaeontology. 41: 29-74. gs

Brummer, G. J. A. (1988b). Comparative ontogeny and species definition of planktonic foraminfers: A case study of Dentigloborotalia anfracta n. gen. In, Brummer, G. J. A. & Kroon, D. (eds) Planktonic Foraminifers as Tracers of Ocean-Climate History. Free University Press, Amsterdam 51-75. gs

d'Orbigny, A. (1839a). Foraminiferes. In, de la Sagra, R. (ed.) Histoire physique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba. A. Bertrand, Paris, France 1-224. gs

Hofker, J. (1954). Morphology of Globigerinatella insueta Cushman and Stainforth. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research. 5(4): 151-152. gs

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Morard, R., Vollmar, N. M., Greco, M. & Kucera, M (2019b). Unassigned diversity of planktonic foraminifera from environmental sequencing revealed as known but neglected species. PLoS One. 14: 1-18. gs

Pearson, P. N., Wade, B. S. & Huber, B. T. (2018c). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Globigerinitidae (Dipsidripella, Globigerinita, and Tenuitella). In, Wade, B. S., Olsson, R. K., Pearson, P. N., Huber, B. T. & Berggren, W. A. (eds) Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication . 46(Chap 16): 429-458. gs O

Ujiié, Y. & Lipps, J. H. (2009). Cryptic diversity in planktonic foraminifera in the northwest Pacific ocean. Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 39: 145-154. gs


Candeina compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 17-7-2024

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