Balaniger virgulosa

Classification: ntax_cenozoic -> Coccolith families inc sed -> Papposphaeraceae -> Balaniger -> Balaniger virgulosa
Sister taxa: B. virgulosa


Citation: Balaniger virgulosa (Manton & Sutherland, 1975) Thomsen & Ostergaard 2014
Rank: Species
Basionym: Pappomonas virgulosa Manton & Sutherland, 1975
Taxonomic discussion: Thomsen & Ostergaard (2014) documented combination coccospheres of the heterococcolith Pappomonas virgulosa Manton & Sutherland, 1975 and the holococcolith Balaniger balticus Thomsen and Oates 1978. The indicates that they are one species and the species epithet with priority is clearly virgulosa. P. virgulosa was an atypical Pappomonas species, notably in rim details, and the B. balticus holococcoliths are very different to the Trigonaspis type holococcoliths of other Pappomonas species. Hence they recombined the species as Balaniger virgulosa.

Distinguishing features: Central area with concentric rings of crystallites, rim elements separated and so wall is discontinuous.
CFC process ca. 1.5 µm high, with long stem supporting four (occasionally 2or 3) radiating rods ca. 0.5 µm long.

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: P. virgulosa *

Size: Cells ca 5µm; BCs ca. 1 µm long.

See also: Balaniger virgulosa HOL ;

Search data:
TagsLITHS: murolith, elliptical, CA: concentric-ring(s), ca_disjunct, vacant, process,
CSPH: elongated, CFC,
MetricsLith size: 0.7->0.9µm; Coccosphere size: 3->7µm;
Data source notes: cell size from OD, lith size (BC diameter) from Thomsen & Ostergaard. 2014
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (Young et al. 2003)
First occurrence (base): within No known fossil record modern (0.00-0.00Ma, base in "Holocene" stage). Data source: [JRY rough estimate]

Plot of occurrence data:


Manton, I. & Sutherland, J. (1975). Further observations on the genus Pappomonas Manton et Oates with special reference to P. virgulosa sp. nov. from West Greenland. British Phycological Journal. 10: 377-385. gs V O

Thomsen, H. A. & Oates, K. (1978). Balaniger balticus gen. et sp. nov. (Prymnesiophiceae) form Danish coastal waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 58: 773-779. gs

Thomsen, H. A. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2014b). Coccolithophorids in polar waters: Pappomonas spp. revisited. Acta Protozoologica. 53: 235-256. gs V O

Thomsen, H. A. (2016). Baltic Sea coccolithophores – an overview of insights into their taxonomy and ecology from the last 40 years. Journal of Nannoplankton Research. 36(2): 97-119. gs V O

Young, J. R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2003). A guide to extant coccolithophore taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, Special Issue. 1: 1-132. gs V O


Balaniger virgulosa compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 1-3-2021

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