Calyptrolithina divergens

Classification: ntax_cenozoic -> Holococcoliths -> convex -> Calyptrolithina divergens
Sister taxa: C. sphaeroidea HOL, S. pulchra HOL oblonga type, S. pulchra HOL pirus type, C. divergens, C. galea, C. sp. cf. heimdaliae ⟩⟨ C. heimdaliae, C. radiata, Flosculosphaera, Gliscolithus


Citation: Calyptrolithina divergens (Halldal & Markali 1955) Heimdal, 1982
Rank: Species
Basionym: Zygosphaera divergens Halldal & Markali 1955

Distinguishing features: Tube sharply separated from cover; cover with perforations

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: Z. divergens + * , Z. divergens tuberosa *

Morphology: BC tube flaring, about 5 crystallites high, tiered wall fabric, often with some perforations; basal flange; distal cover conical, recessed within tube, hexagonal mesh fabric.
CFC similar but distal cover with large pores at each end and extended into bridge.

Size: Liths ca. 2 µm long

Biology & life-cycles: A combination coccosphere with the heterococcolith Syracosphaera halldalii was recorded by Triantaphyllou et al. 2004. Only a single coccosphere was observed, but it is well preserved and does not look to be an artefact, so it is likely this combination will be confirmed.

See also: Syracosphaera halldalii - possible heterococcolith stage;

Search data:
TagsLITHS: holococcolith, elliptical, hollow, CA: closed,
CSPH: equant, elongated, CFC, CROSS-POLARS: V-prominent, R-prominent,
MetricsLith size: 1.5->2.6µm; Coccosphere size: 8->12µm; Liths per sphere: 35->125
Data source notes: morphom data from Yang & Wei (2003), Cros & Fortuño (2002) & Kleijne 1991
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (Young et al. 2003)
First occurrence (base): within No known fossil record modern (0.00-0.00Ma, base in "Holocene" stage). Data source: [JRY rough estimate]

Plot of occurrence data:


Cros, L. & Fortuño, J. -M. (2002). Atlas of northwestern Mediterranean coccolithophores. Scientia Marina. 66: 1-186. gs V O

Halldal, P. & Markali, J. (1955). Electron microscope studies on coccolithophorids from the Norwegian Sea, the Gulf Stream and the Mediterranean. Avhandlinger utgitt av det Norske Videnskapsakademi i Oslo. Matematisk-Naturvidenskapelig Klasse. 1955(1): 1-30. gs

Heimdal, B. R. & Gaarder, K. R. (1980). Coccolithophorids from the northern part of the eastern central Atlantic I. Holococcolithophorids. “Meteor” Forschungsergebnisse, Reihe D, Biologie. 32: 1-14. gs

Heimdal, B. R. (1982). Validation of the names of some species of Zygosphaera Kamptner. INA Newsletter. 4: 52-56. gs V O

Jordan, R. W., Kleijne, A. & Heimdal, B. R. (1993). Proposed changes to the classification system of coccolithophorids. III. INA Newsletter. 15(1): 18-22. gs V O

Kleijne, A. (1991). Holococcolithophorids from the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Micropaleontology. 17: 1-76. gs

Okada, H. & McIntyre, A. (1977). Modern coccolithophores of the Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Micropaleontology. 23(1): 1-55. gs

Reid, F. M. H. (1980). Coccolithophorids of the North Pacific Central Gyre with notes on their vertical and seasonal distribution. Micropaleontology. 26(2): 151-176. gs

Triantaphyllou, M., Dimiza, M. D. & Dermitzakis, M. (2004a). Syracosphaera halldalii and Calyptrolithina divergens var. tuberosa life-cycle association and relevant taxonomic remarks. Micropaleontology. 50(suppl. 1): 121-126. gs

Winter, A., Reiss, Z. & Luz, B. (1979). Distribution of living coccolithophore assemblages in the Gulf of Elat ('Aqaba). Marine Micropaleontology. 4: 197-223. gs

Young, J. R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2003). A guide to extant coccolithophore taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, Special Issue. 1: 1-132. gs V O


Calyptrolithina divergens compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 8-3-2021

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