Nannotax3 - ntax_cenozoic - Pappomonas Nannotax3 - ntax_cenozoic - Pappomonas


Classification: ntax_cenozoic -> Coccolith families inc sed -> Papposphaeraceae -> Pappomonas
Sister taxa: Papposphaera, Pappomonas, Balaniger, Formonsella, Quaternariella ⟩⟨ Ventimolina, Wigwamma, Pseudowigwamma ⟩⟨ Kataspinifera, Picarola, Vexillarius, Pocillithus

Daughter taxa (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)
flabellifera group - CFCs with axial cross & flat calyx of 2 blades; BCs with longitudinal bars
Pappomonas borealis
CFCs with axial cross, spine and flat calyx of two similar, triangular blades,
BCs 1-1.8 µm long, with 5-9 longitudinal bars
AACs like BCs but 1 or 2 rim elements extended into lateral spines 
Pappomonas flabellifera
CFC with axial cross, spine and flat calyx of two disimilar blades.
BCs 0.6-0.9 µm long, with 3 or 4  longitudinal bars
AACs like CFCs but with lower spine and smaller more symetrical clayx 
Pappomonas garrisonii
CFCs with axial cross, spine and flat calyx of two similar, diverging blades each with central rod
BCs with 5 longitudinal bars and one crossbar
AACs like CFCs but with lower spine and smaller clayx, may occur around coccosphere  
Pappomonas weddellensis
CFC process ca. 2.0-2.5 µm high, with short stem supporting two large fan-like blades, one markedly larger than the other.
BCs with axial cross +/- extra bars
AACs like CFCs but much smaller spine and calyx
Type 1-4-5 group - CFCs with tall spine with little or no calyx; BCs with cross-bar and 2 concentric rings
Pappomonas sp. type 1
Central area with two concentric rings and transverse bar; rim high;
CFC process ca. 2.5 µm high tipped by four short radiating rods.
Pappomonas sp. type 4
Central area with two concentric rings and transverse bar
CFC process ca. 2.5 µm high, straight without apical structure, additional ?CFCs have shorter spines (ca. 0.5 µm).
Pappomonas sp. type 5
Central area with two concentric rings and transverse bar
CFC process 2.5- 3 µm high, slender square section curved rod without apical structure.
AACs, a few present with shorter rod.
Pappomonas sp.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species


Citation: Pappomonas Manton & Oates, 1975
taxonomic rank: Genus
Type species: Pappomonas flabellifera Manton & Oates 1975
Taxonomic discussion: The species included here in Pappomonas are clearly dimorphic, with well-differentiated circum flagellar coccoligs (CFCs) and body coccoliths (BCs). The BCs lack any spine and often have different central area structures to the CFCs. Additional coccoliths similar to the CFCs, but with smaller proceses, often occur away from the flagellar pole, but can be consistently separated from the BCs.

Two rather different groups of species are included here.
  1. flabellifera group. This is a set of predominantly cold water species. The CFCs have axial croses and a flat, vertically disposed, calyx of two blades.   frequently The BCs have central areas typically with a few longitudinal bars. Tw of the species (borealis and garrisonii) are known to form Turrisphaera-type holococcolihs (with triangular crystallites) in the alternate life-cycle phase.
  2. Type 1-4-5 group. this comprises three species informally described  by Cros & Fortuño 2002. The CFCs have moderate length spines with weak or no calcices. A few CFC The BCs have a structure of several concentric/longitudinal bars and a single transverse bar.   

NB A few other forms have previously been included in Pappomonas:

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Papposphaeraceae): Narrow-rimmed muroliths, mostly with prominent central structures.
This taxon: Coccolith distal rim serrated - elements pentagonal;
Coccosphere dimorphic or trimorphic. Processes only on CFCs coccoliths. Calices with 2-fold symmetry
BCs without axial spine or node

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: Pappomonas


Coccospheres polymorphic with up to three coccolith types:
  1. CFCs circular with prominent process.
  2. BCs elliptical without spines.
  3. AACs similar to CFCs with diminutive version of the process, not observed in all species
In all liths the outer rim elements have angular tops, forming serrated margin; central area and process structures vary between species.

Ecology & Biogeography

Best known from polar waters but diverse warm water species also occur (Cros & Fortuño 2002, Young et al. 2003) although most of them have not yet been formally described.

Biology & life-cycles
Combination coccospheres with Trigonaspis have been recognised in P. polybotrys and P. borealis (Thomsen et al. 1991, Thomsen & Ostergaard 2014, 2015)

See also: Trigonaspis - alternate life cycle phase of at least some species;

Search data:
LITHS: murolith, elliptical, CA: ca_disjunct,
CSPH: equant, CFC,
Lith size: 0.5->1.5µm; Coccosphere size: 4->15µm;
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

Geological Range:
Notes: NB We previously suggested on this website a range through to the Palaeogene but the fossil specimens on which this was based are now placed in a separate genus, Pocilithus [JRY 2016]
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Total of ranges of the species in this database
First occurrence (base): within No known fossil record modern (0.00-0.00Ma, base in "Holocene" stage). Data source: Total of ranges of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:


Manton, I. & Oates, K. (1975). Fine-structural observations on Papposphaera Tangen from the Southern Hemisphere and on Pappomonas gen. nov. from South Africa and Greenland. British Phycological Journal. 10(1): 93-109. gs

Thomsen, H. A. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2014). Coccolithophorids in polar waters: Pappomonas spp. revisited. Acta Protozoologica. 53: 235-256. gs

Thomsen, H. A. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2015). Coccolithophorids in Polar Waters: Trigonaspis spp. revisited. Acta Protozoologica. 54: 85-96. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Ostergaard, J. B. & Hansen, L. E. (1991). Heteromorphic life histories in Arctic coccolithophorids (Prymnesiophyceae). Journal of Phycology. 27: 634-642. gs

Thomsen, H. A., Heldal, M. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2016). Coccolithophores in Polar Waters: Papposphaera sarion HET and HOL revisited. Micropaleontology. 61(6): 429-438. gs


Pappomonas compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 21-4-2024

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