Nannotax3 - ntax_cenozoic - Syracosphaera bannockii HOL

Syracosphaera bannockii HOL

Classification: ntax_cenozoic -> Holococcoliths -> flat-topped -> Zygosphaera -> Syracosphaera bannockii HOL
Sister taxa: S. bannockii HOL, Z. amoena, Z. marsilii, Z. sp.


Citation: Syracosphaera bannockii (Borsetti & Cati 1976) Cros et al., 2000 HOL
Rank: species
Basionym: Sphaerocalyptra bannockii Borsetti & Cati 1976
Variants: Corisphaera sp. type A (Kleijne 1991) - similar to typical form but with a central opening on the distal surface, spanned by the transverse ridge. Coccospheres with both this form and the typical form occur (Cros et al. 2000, our obs.).

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Zygosphaera): Dimorphic; liths semi-solid - formed of concentric rings of crystallites.
BCs flat topped with node or ridge on distal surface, rather than a true bridge.
CFCs similar with transverse bridge or leaf.

This taxon: BCs with transverse ridge one crystallite wide.
CFCs with central opening and well-developed triangular leaf.

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: S. bannockii *

Size: Liths 1-1.5 µm long.

Biology & life-cycles: Cros et al. 2000 illustrated an unambiguous combination coccosphere with the heterococcolith phase, which had not previously been described. Additional specimens have been observed in a mixed bloom of the holococcolith and heterococcolith phases in the Bay of Biscay (Daniels et al. 2014).

See also: Syracosphaera bannockii ;

Search data:
TagsLITHS: holococcolith, elliptical, hollow, CA: closed,
CSPH: elongated, CFC, CROSS-POLARS: R-prominent,
MetricsLith size: 0.8->1.5µm; Coccosphere size: 4.5->7µm; Liths per sphere: 50->100
Data source notes: morphom data from Yang & Wei (2003), Cros & Fortuño (2002) & Kleijne 1991
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (Young et al. 2003)
First occurrence (base): within No known fossil record modern (0.00-0.00Ma, base in "Holocene" stage). Data source: [JRY rough estimate]

Plot of occurrence data:


Borsetti, A. M. & Cati, F. (1976). Il Nannoplancton calcareo vivente nel Tirreno Centro-meridionale. Parte II. Giornale di Geologia. 40(1): 209-240. gs V O

Cros, L. & Fortuño, J. -M. (2002). Atlas of northwestern Mediterranean coccolithophores. Scientia Marina. 66: 1-186. gs V O

Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Zeltner, A., Billard, C. & Young, J. R. (2000b). New examples of holococcolith-heterococcolith combination coccospheres and their implications for coccolithophorid biology. In, Young, J. R., Thierstein, H. R. & Winter, A. (eds) Nannoplankton ecology and palaeocology, Proceedings of the INA7 conference, Puerto Rico, February 2002. Marine Micropaleontology. 39(1-4): 1-34. gs

Daniels, C. J., Tyrrell, T., Poulton, A. J. & Young, J. R. (2014b). A mixed life-cycle stage bloom of Syracosphaera bannockii (Borsetti and Cati, 1976) Cros et al. 2000 (Bay of Biscay April 2010). Journal of Nannoplankton Research. 34(special): 31-35. gs V O

Kleijne, A. (1991). Holococcolithophorids from the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Micropaleontology. 17: 1-76. gs

Skejic, S. et al. (2018). Coccolithophore diversity in open waters of the middle Adriatic Sea in pre- T and post-winter periods. Marine Micropaleontology. 143(1): 30-45. gs

Winter, A., Reiss, Z. & Luz, B. (1979). Distribution of living coccolithophore assemblages in the Gulf of Elat ('Aqaba). Marine Micropaleontology. 4: 197-223. gs

Young, J. R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2003). A guide to extant coccolithophore taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, Special Issue. 1: 1-132. gs V O


Syracosphaera bannockii HOL compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 21-9-2021

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Comments (1)

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Maria Triantaphyllou (Greece)
The combination coccospheres found (Dimiza et al., 2008, Pl.2, figs1-6) involving Z. amoena, S.bannockii HOL-solid and transitional forms to S. bannockii HOL- bridged implies that all three taxa should belong to the same species. Syracosphaera Lohmann 1902 has priority over Zygosphaera Kamptner 1937 emend. Heimdal 1982 and the species Z. amoena Kamptner 1937 has priority over S.bannockii (Borsetti and Cati 1976) Cros et al.2000, therefore Dimiza et al. (2008) proposed the new combination Syracosphaera amoena (Kamptner 1937) Dimiza and Triantaphyllou comb. nov. for the established association. A non-Linnean terminology should be used, e.g. S.amoena HOL- bridged [“Corisphaera sp. type A”], S.amoena HOL solid transverse [Z bannockii] and S.amoena HOL solid longtitudinal [Z. amoena]
DIMIZA, M., TRIANTAPHYLLOU, M.V., DERMITZAKIS, M.D., 2008. Seasonality and ecology of living coccolithophores in E. Mediterranean coastal environments. Micropaleontology 54:159-175
Jeremy Young (UCL, UK)
Good point and I should definitely mention this on the relevant pages. I think I'd like to see HET-HOL combination cells though before changing the names
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