Syracosphaera halldalii

Classification: ntax_cenozoic -> Syracosphaerales -> Syracosphaeraceae -> Syracosphaera -> SY molischii gp -> halldalii type -> Syracosphaera halldalii
Sister taxa: S. halldalii, S. protrudens


Citation: Syracosphaera halldalii Gaarder, in Gaarder & Hasle 1971 ex Jordan, 1994
Rank: Species
Taxonomic discussion: This is the type species of Caneosphaera Gaarder in Gaarder & Heimdal 1977, it is normally combined in Syracosphaera following Jordan & Young (1990), but the consistent absence of XCs means reinstatement of the genus Caneosphaera may be justified.

Distinguishing features: BC flange smooth protrusions short or absent

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: S. halldalii [no catalog entry yet], S. verruca israela *

Morphology: BCs - with narrow distal flange; flanges well-separated by vertical sided tube; laths well-separated; low axial ridge formed of one or two laths. Short teeth protruding over central area from distal flange occur in some specimens. CFCs - with tall spine, quadrate section, blunt end.

Size: Coccospheres 5-20 µm; BCs 2-4 µm.

Biology & life-cycles: A combination coccosphere with the holococcolith Calyptrolithina divergens forma tuberosa was recorded by Triantaphyllou et al. 2004. Only a single coccosphere was observed, but it is well preserved and does not look to be an artefact, so it is likely this combination will be confirmed.

See also: Calyptrolithina divergens - possible holococcolith stage;

Search data:
TagsLITHS: murolith, placolith, SHAPE: elliptical, CA: ca_disjunct, grill, plate, process,
CSPH: equant, elongated, CFC, CROSS-POLARS: R-prominent, T-prominent,
MetricsLith size: 2->3.5µm; Coccosphere size: 9->12µm; Liths per sphere: 40->80
Data source notes: lith length (BCs) from illustrated specimens and Cros & Fotuño 2002; csph data from Cros & Fortuño 2003; lith numbers from Yang & Wei 2003, range of estimates
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (Young et al. 2003)
First occurrence (base): within No known fossil record modern (0.00-0.00Ma, base in "Holocene" stage). Data source: [JRY rough estimate]

Plot of occurrence data:


Cros, L. & Fortuño, J. -M. (2002). Atlas of northwestern Mediterranean coccolithophores. Scientia Marina. 66: 1-186. gs V O

Jordan, R. W. & Green, J. C. (1994). A check-list of the extant haptophyta of the world. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 74: 149-174. gs

Jordan, R. W. & Young, J. R. (1990). Proposed changes to the classification system of living Coccolithophorids. INA Newsletter. 12(1): 15-18. gs V O

Konno, S. & Jordan, R. W. (2006). Lagoon coccolithophorids from the Republic of Palau, NW Equatorial Pacific. Journal of Nannoplankton Research. 28(2): 95-110. gs V O

McGrane, P. B. (2014). Observation of an exothecal coccolith associated with Syracosphaera halldalii: evidence for dithecatism? Journal of Nannoplankton Research. 34(special): 47-48. gs V O

Okada, H. & McIntyre, A. (1977). Modern coccolithophores of the Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Micropaleontology. 23(1): 1-55. gs

Triantaphyllou, M., Dimiza, M. D. & Dermitzakis, M. (2004a). Syracosphaera halldalii and Calyptrolithina divergens var. tuberosa life-cycle association and relevant taxonomic remarks. Micropaleontology. 50(suppl. 1): 121-126. gs

Young, J. R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2003). A guide to extant coccolithophore taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, Special Issue. 1: 1-132. gs V O


Syracosphaera halldalii compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 14-5-2021

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Short stable page link: Go to to create a permanent copy of this page - citation notes

Comments (1)

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Maria Triantaphyllou (Greece)
Combination coccosphere with Calyptrolithina divergens var. tuberosa

TRIANTAPHYLLOU, M.V., DIMIZA, M.D.*, DERMITZAKIS, M.D., 2004. Syracosphaera halldalii and Calyptrolithina divergens var. tuberosa life-cycle association and relevant taxonomic remarks.
Micropaleontology 50 (1): 121-126."""
Jeremy Young (UCL, UK)
very true - id like to see at least one more specimen but I will add some text on both pages and a link between them
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