Syracosphaera mediterranea HOL wettsteinii type

Classification: ntax_cenozoic -> Holococcoliths -> flat-topped -> S. mediterranea HOL type -> Syracosphaera mediterranea HOL wettsteinii type
Sister taxa: C. multipora, S. histrica HOL, S. mediterranea HOL gracillima type, S. mediterranea HOL hellenica type, S. mediterranea HOL wettsteinii type


Citation: Syracosphaera mediterranea Lohmann 1902 HOL wettsteinii type, sensu Geisen et al., 2002
Rank: Species
Basionym: Zygosphaera wettsteini Kamptner 1937
Synonyms: Prior to recognition of the lfe cycle association with Syracosphaera mediterranea this holococcolith was normally referred to as Zygosphaera wettsteinii. Young et al. (2020) showed that Homozygosphaera vercellii was a synonym rather than a separate species and that the holotype of Syracolithus dalmaticus was also a specimen of this taxon.

Distinguishing features: Similar to C. multipora but only 4-6, irregular, pores on distal surface.
CFCs with bridge elevated into spine-like structure, sometimes with three buttresses

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: Z. wettsteini * , H. halldalii * , H. vercellii * , S. dalmatica *

Biology & life-cycles: Combination coccospheres illustrated by Kamptner (1941) and Cros et al. (2000), discussed by Geisen et al. (2002). More specimens have since been observed off NW European shelf by McGrane (2007) and Young (unpubl. obs cruise D366, summer 2011).

See also: Syracosphaera mediterranea ;

Search data:
TagsLITHS: holococcolith, elliptical, hollow, CA: pores, process,
CSPH: equant, elongated, CFC, CROSS-POLARS: V-prominent, R-prominent,
MetricsLith size: 1.9->2.6µm; Coccosphere size: 9->16µm; Liths per sphere: 70->150
Data source notes: morphom data from Yang & Wei (2003), Cros & Fortuño (2002) & Kleijne 1991
The morphological data given here can be used on the advanced search page. See also these notes

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: present in the plankton (Young et al. 2003)
First occurrence (base): within Quaternary Period (0.00-2.59Ma, base in Gelasian stage). Data source: [JRY rough estimate]

Plot of occurrence data:


Cros, L. & Fortuño, J. -M. (2002). Atlas of northwestern Mediterranean coccolithophores. Scientia Marina. 66: 1-186. gs V O

Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Zeltner, A., Billard, C. & Young, J. R. (2000b). New examples of holococcolith-heterococcolith combination coccospheres and their implications for coccolithophorid biology. In, Young, J. R., Thierstein, H. R. & Winter, A. (eds) Nannoplankton ecology and palaeocology, Proceedings of the INA7 conference, Puerto Rico, February 2002. Marine Micropaleontology. 39(1-4): 1-34. gs

Halldal, P. & Markali, J. (1955). Electron microscope studies on coccolithophorids from the Norwegian Sea, the Gulf Stream and the Mediterranean. Avhandlinger utgitt av det Norske Videnskapsakademi i Oslo. Matematisk-Naturvidenskapelig Klasse. 1955(1): 1-30. gs

Kamptner, E. (1937b). Neue und bemerkenswerte Coccolithineen aus dem Mittelmeer. Archiv für Protistenkunde. 89: 279-316. gs

Kleijne, A. (1991). Holococcolithophorids from the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Micropaleontology. 17: 1-76. gs

McGrane, P. B. (2007). Extant coccolithophores in Irish shelf waters of the northeast Atlantic. PhD thesis, Galway University. 1-360. gs

Norris, R. E. (1985). Indian Ocean nanoplankton. II. Holococcolithophorids (Calyptrosphaeraceae, Prymnesiophyceae) with a review of extant genera. Journal of Phycology. 21: 619-641. gs

Skejic, S. et al. (2018). Coccolithophore diversity in open waters of the middle Adriatic Sea in pre- T and post-winter periods. Marine Micropaleontology. 143(1): 30-45. gs

Young, J. R., Geisen, M., Cros, L., Kleijne, A., Probert, I. & Ostergaard, J. B. (2003). A guide to extant coccolithophore taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, Special Issue. 1: 1-132. gs V O


Syracosphaera mediterranea HOL wettsteinii type compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 16-4-2021

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