|Daughter taxa (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)||Granddaughter taxa|
Coccoliths convex outwards, relatively heavily calcified, with ridges on the distal surface.
Umbellosphaera tenuis type I
Umbellosphaera tenuis type II
Umbellosphaera tenuis type IIIa
Umbellosphaera tenuis type IIIb
Umbellosphaera tenuis type IV
Umbellosphaera tenuis type O
Coccoliths concave outwards, without ridges on the distal surface
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species
Parent taxon (Umbellosphaeraceae): Placolith-like with distal shield much larger than proximal, predominantly formed from R-units, V-units vestigial.
This taxon: Coccoliths trumpet-shaped
Farinacci & Howe catalog pages: Umbellosphaera + * , Ellipsodiscoaster *
In cross polars distal shield usually shows low birefringence (as it is very thin), whilst tube is highly birefringent (since it is muchthicker than the shield). As a result Umbellosphaera coccoliths resemble a small Reticulofenestra with a wide dark rim.
Coccolith types: (based on Kleijne 1993):
1. Macrococcoliths: large liths with broad rims, forming outer surface of coccosphere; central area sub-circular.
2. Micrococcoliths: small liths with narrow rims, only visible on broken coccospheres; Central area elliptical, rims often with less ornament than on the macrococcoliths.
Thistye intergrade so it is porbbly more useful to consider the coccliths as varimorohic.
Ecology & Biogeography: The genus is characteristic of oligotrophic surface waters.
Phylogenetic relations: The coccoliths are clearly heterococcoliths, but show no obvious affinities to any of the major groups. The absence of a well developed V-unit cycle makes affinity with the Coccosphaerales or Zygodiscales unlikely and the absence of T-unit radial laths separates them from the Syracosphaerales. An alternative possibility suggested by the dominant development of the R-units is that they are highly modified Noelaerhabdaceae. This is weakly supported by the rare occurrence of malformed E. huxleyi specimens, which resemble Umbellosphaera, and by the general similarity of the cross-polarised light interference figure of Umbellosphaera coccoliths to those of Noelaerhabdaceaen coccoliths.
|LITHS: placolith, asymmetric, elliptical, CA: ca_conjunct, plate, closed, |
CSPH: equant, BC-dimorphic, CROSS-POLARS: rim-unicyclic, R-prominent,
|Lith size: 1.5->10µm; Coccosphere size: 8->15µm;|
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): in upper part of Zanclean Stage (82% up, 3.9Ma, in Zanclean stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database
Plot of occurrence data:
Boudreaux, J. E. & Hay, W. W. (1969). Calcareous nannoplankton and biostratigraphy of the late Pliocene-Pleistocene-Recent sediments in the Submarex cores. Revista Española de Micropaleontología. 1(3): 249-292. gs O Markali, J. & Paasche, E. (1955). On two species of Umbellosphaera, a new marine coccolithophorid genus. Nytt Magasin for Botanikk. 4: 95-100. gs
Boudreaux, J. E. & Hay, W. W. (1969). Calcareous nannoplankton and biostratigraphy of the late Pliocene-Pleistocene-Recent sediments in the Submarex cores. Revista Española de Micropaleontología. 1(3): 249-292. gs O
Markali, J. & Paasche, E. (1955). On two species of Umbellosphaera, a new marine coccolithophorid genus. Nytt Magasin for Botanikk. 4: 95-100. gs
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