Journal instructions for citing websites vary but typical citations might be:

Young, J.R., Bown P.R., Lees J.A. (2022) Nannotax3 website. International Nannoplankton Association. Accessed 21 Apr. 2022. URL:

Young, J.R., Bown P.R., Lees J.A. (2022) 'Cylindralithus' Nannotax3 website. Accessed 21 Apr. 2022.

Farinacci, A. & Howe, R.W. (1969-2022) The Farinacci & Howe Catalog of Calcareous Nannofossils. Vols 1-26. Accessed online at:

Online Archiving
Including the date on which a page, on the site, was viewed is strongly advised, since the site is liable to change. Our current software does not archive old versions of the website, so you should use an external archiving system to record the specific content of the site when you accessed it. You can do this by using a service such as to create a permanent archive copy of any page from mikrotax. This is probably the most robust way to cite individual pages and is ideal for use in peer-reviewed journals. It also will provide a short URL, e.g the WebCite URL for the Helicosphaeraceae page as cached on 29th June 2017 is Using this the citation would be of this form:

Young, J.R., Bown P.R., Lees J.A. (2017) 'Helicosphaeraceae' Nannotax3 website. 29th June 2017.

N.B. We previously reccomended Webcite however this website does not archive images and does not seem to be being actively developed (although archived pages are still available from it), so seems a surperior alternative.


Compiling the database of information presented on Nannotax has been a massive task. To avoid large-scale unattributed re-use (aka plagiarism) this database is not available for anonymous download. However, if you are interested in a research collaboration with us using this database you are very welcome to get in touch ( or

API (web-service)

There is now a simple REST API for the site, which returns a JSON object in repsonse to queries on taxon name or numeric id. This allows programable linkage from other sites, so that the pforams@mikrotax site can be used as a web-service for taxonomic data. This includes the data needed to use thumbnail images from the pforams@mikrotax site. Details are given here.


Most images on the website remain the copyright of the original authors. You are welcome to re-use the content for non-commercial purposes but we do expect you to include attribution. A typical attribution might be "image from Nannotax3 website (". There is no need to ask for permission to use content from the site in student reports, teaching materials, or research talks, so long as there is an attribution. We would, however, expect to be asked before content was used in published articles, in videos, on websites, or in commercial reports, and in some cases we would need to refer your request to the copyright holder. I.e. Images on this website are not public domain and may not be used in publications without our permission

Original descriptions and type illustrations are a special type of content, of unique societal importance, and, as suggested by Agosti & Egloff (2009, Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMR Research Notes 2(53): 1-9.), are arguably outside normal copyright protection. This has been assumed by producers of species description catalogues such as the Ellis & Messina catalogue of foraminifera and has apparently not been challenged by publishers. So, we do abstract this type of content into the catalog.


Nannotax is a major compilation, built up over an extended period, from a wide range of sources. It inevitably contains mistakes and ommisions. When you find these, or if you disagree with something, please add comments on the bottom of the relevant page. That way your insights can be shared widely. Giving presentations, or writing papers, pointing out mistakes on the system is less helpful, and especially if you have not added comments highlighting these mistakes.