pforams@mikrotax - Globorotalia pforams@mikrotax - Globorotalia


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> Globorotaliidae -> Globorotalia
Sister taxa: Fohsella, Globoconella, Globorotalia, Neogloboquadrina, Pulleniatina
Daughter taxa (time control age-window is: 0-800Ma)Granddaughter taxa
hirsuta lineage
G. scitula - juanai - margaritae - hirsuta lineage
Globorotalia hirsuta
Globorotalia eastropacia
Globorotalia margaritae
Globorotalia juanai
Globorotalia bermudezi
Globorotalia scitula
Globorotalia praescitula
Globorotalia cibaoensis
Globorotalia gigantea
Globorotalia challengeri

menardii lineage
G. archeomenardii - menardii, limbata - miocenica & exilis - pertenius lineages
Globorotalia pertenuis
Globorotalia exilis
Globorotalia multicamerata
Globorotalia miocenica
Globorotalia pseudomiocenica
Globorotalia limbata
Globorotalia menardii
Globorotalia praemenardii
Globorotalia archeomenardii

truncatulinoides lineage
G. crasula - crassaformis - tosaensis - truncatulinoides lineage, predominantly conicotruncate
Globorotalia cavernula
Globorotalia truncatulinoides
Globorotalia tosaensis
Globorotalia tenuitheca
Globorotalia hessi
Globorotalia ronda
Globorotalia crassaformis
Globorotalia viola
Globorotalia crassaconica
Globorotalia crassula

tumida lineage
G. lenguaensis - merotumida - tumida - flexuosa lineage
Globorotalia ungulata
Globorotalia flexuosa
Globorotalia tumida
Globorotalia plesiotumida
Globorotalia merotumida

temperate Globorotalia species
temperate species which do not readily fit in the main lineages
Globorotalia bella
Globorotalia zealandica

Globorotalia sp.
Specimens which cannot be assigned to established species


Citation: Globorotalia Cushman 1927
taxonomic rank: genus
Type species: Pulvinulina menardii var. tumida
Taxonomic discussion: Virtually every planktonic foraminiferal species with an extraumbilical to peripheral aperture has been assigned to the genus Globorotalia. However, although the use of the apertural characteristic as the sole criterion has the advantage of simplicity of application, it does not necessarily reflect true phylogenetic relationships between species or patterns of evolutionary radiation, which have marked the Neogene planktonic foraminiferal assemblages (Cifelli, 1969).
Blow (1969) divided the Neogene globorotaliids into two subgenera, Globorotalia (Globorotalia) and Globorotalia (Turborotalia), on the basis of the presence or absence of a peripheral keel. Such a procedure, however, ignores the phyletic relationships between species and often splits a continuous evolutionary bioseries into two subgenera, as for example the Gr. (Turborotalia) peripheroronda to Gr. (Globorotalia) fohsi robusta bioseries. Thus, Blow's (1969) grouping is artificial from a taxonomic point of view. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983].

The distinct lineages of Globorotalia have been assigned to different genera or sub-genera by many workers - e.g. Bandy (1972, 1975), Fleisher (1974), Kennett & Srinivasan (1983), Aze et al. 2011. However, the nomenclatural validity of some of these taxa is in doubt, and they are not usually used for the extant species. So, here we simply identify them as lineages. Despite this the classification essentially follows that of Aze et al. 2011. For further discussion see also Cifelli & Scott (1986), Stewart (2003).

Catalog entries: Globorotalia

Distinguishing features:
Parent taxon (Globorotaliidae): Macroperforate, non-spinose
This taxon: Smooth wall; compressed chambers:

NB These concise distinguishing features statements are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus.
They are being edited as the site is developed and comments on them are especially welcome.



Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution

Most likely ancestor: Paragloborotalia - at confidence level 3 (out of 5). Data source: the ancestor of both the fohsi lineage and the scitula lineage are thought to be species of Paragloborotalia.
Likely descendants: Globoconella; plot with descendants

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant. Data source: Total of ranges of the species in this database
First occurrence (base): within N5 zone (17.59-21.12Ma, base in Aquitanian stage). Data source: Total of ranges of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:


Aze, T. et al. (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews. 86: 900-927. gs

Bandy, O. L. (1972). Origin and development of Globorotalia (Turborotalia) pachyderma (Ehrenberg). Micropaleontology. 18(3): 294-318. gs

Bandy, O. L. (1975). Messinian evaporite deposition and the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, Pasquasia-Capodarso Sections, Sicily. In, Saito, T. & Burckle, L. H. (eds) Late Neogene Epoch Boundaries. American Museum Natural History Micropaleontology Press, New York 49-63. gs

Cifelli, R. & Scott, G. H. (1986). Stratigraphic record of the Neogene globorotaliid radiation (Planktonic Foraminiferida). Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 58: 101-. gs

Cushman, J. A. (1927a). An outline of a re-classification of the Foraminifera. Contributions from the Cushman Laboratory for Foraminiferal Research. 3: 1-105. gs O

Fleisher, R. L. (1974a). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 23: 1001-1072. gs O

Kennett, J. P. & Srinivasan, M. S. (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. 1-265. gs

Stewart, D. R. M. I. (2003). Evolution of Neogene globorotaliid foraminifera and Miocene climate change. PhD thesis, Bristol University. 1-269. gs O


Globorotalia compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 15-4-2024

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